Flashcards in Biology Deck (92):
What is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way?
What is the information gathered from observations called?
What is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience?
What is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations?
What is the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter?
What is an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time?
Which variable is deliberately changed?
Which variable is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable?
What is a hypothesis that becomes extremely well supported?
What is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates itself from its surroundings?
What is it called when two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism?
What is it called when a single celled organism divides in half to form two new organisms or when a portion of an organism splits off to form a new organism?
What is the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes?
What is a signal to which an organism responds?
What is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions such as temperature and water constant to survive?
What is the science that seeks to understand the living world?
What is the ability of a group of organisms to change over time called?
What is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of ten?
What are devices called that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye?
What type of microscope allows light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image?
compound light microscope
What are microscopes that use beams of electrons, rather than light, to produce images?
What is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world?
What is a group of cells that develops from a single original cell?
What is a technique that separates the different cell parts?
What is the basic unit of matter?
What is formed when strong forces bind protons and neutrons together?
What is a negatively charged particle?
What is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom?
What are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain?
What is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions?
What is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another?
What forms when electrons are shared between atoms?
What is the smallest unit of most compounds?
What is a slight attraction that can develop between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules?
van der Waals forces
What is an attraction between molecules of the same substance?
What is an attraction between molecules of different substances?
What is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined?
What is the substance that is dissolved?
What is the substance in which the solute dissolves?
What are mixtures of water and non dissolved material known as?
What system of measurement indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution?
What is any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution?
What is a compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution?
What are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH?
What contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists?
What is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring?
What are groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area?
What are assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area?
What is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment?
What is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities?
What are organisms that use energy from sunlight to produce food?
What is it called when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates?
What are organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supple?
What organisms obtain energy by eating only plants?
What organisms eat animals?
What organisms eat both plants and animals?
What organisms feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter?
What organism break down organic matter?
What is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten?
What is it called when feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions?
What is each step in a food chain or food web called?
What is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web?
What is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level?
What is the cycle in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another?
What is the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas?
What is the process in which water can also enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants?
What are all the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life?
What is it called when certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia?
What is it called when certain soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas?
What is it called when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly?
What is the goal of science?
to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and use those explanations to make useful predictions
What is not the goal of science?
What are the steps in an experiment?
ask a question
form a hypothesis
set up a controlled experiment
record and analyze results
drawing a conclusion
Why is it important to only test one variable at a time?
so that you can know how changing the manipulated variable effected the responding variable
Why do scientists publish their experiments?
so that their results can be reproduced
What are the 7 characteristics of living things?
they are made of cells,
based on a universal genetic code,
grow and develop,
obtain and use materials as energy,
respond to their environment,
maintain a stable internal environment,
What are the four types of microscopes?
compound light microscope
What is the metric system?
a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards
Why do scientists use the metric system?
so that they can replicate each others experiments since most experiments involve measurements
What are the multiples of the metric system based on?
Describe Redi's experiment.
its the experiment with the flies and the maggots and meat and covers and not sppooontaneous generation
What is the Greek word for atom?
List the three particles that make up and atom, where they are located, what charge they have, and how many of each are located in an atom
proton- nucleus, positive, atomic number
neutron- nucleus, neutral, atomic mass minus atomic number
electron- orbits the nucleus, negative, same as proton
What is the basic unit of matter?
List the first ten elements, including their abbreviation, atomic number, and atomic mass.
Hydrogen-H, 1, 1
Helium- He, 2, 4
Lithium- Li, 3, 7
Beryllium- Be, 4, 9
Boron- B, 5, 11
Carbon- C, 6, 12
Nitrogen- N, 7, 14
Oxygen- O, 8, 16
Fluorine- F, 9, 19
Neon- Ne, 10, 20
What is the difference between an ionic and a covalent bond?
ionic- electrons are TRANSFERRED
covalent- electrons are SHARED
Describe the biosphere.
the combined portions of the planets in which all life exists
What is the original source of energy?
What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?
autotrophs produce their own food
heterotrophs rely on other organisms for food
How much energy is passed on to the next trophic level? Why?
the rest is burned off
Describe the difference between nitrogen fixation and denitrification.
nitrogen fixation- some bacteria convert NITRATES into NITROGEN GAS
denitrification- soil bacteria convert NITRATES into NITROGEN GASS