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9 WEEKS TEST > Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Deck (92):
1

What is the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way?

observation

2

What is the information gathered from observations called?

data

3

What is a logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience?

inference

4

What is a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations?

hypothesis

5

What is the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter?

spontaneous generation

6

What is an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time?

controlled experiment

7

Which variable is deliberately changed?

manipulated variable

8

Which variable is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable?

responding variable

9

What is a hypothesis that becomes extremely well supported?

theory

10

What is a collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates itself from its surroundings?

cell

11

What is it called when two cells from different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism?

sexual reproduction

12

What is it called when a single celled organism divides in half to form two new organisms or when a portion of an organism splits off to form a new organism?

asexual reproduction

13

What is the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes?

metabolism

14

What is a signal to which an organism responds?

stimulus

15

What is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions such as temperature and water constant to survive?

homeostasis

16

What is the science that seeks to understand the living world?

biology

17

What is the ability of a group of organisms to change over time called?

evolution

18

What is a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of ten?

metric system

19

What are devices called that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye?

microscope

20

What type of microscope allows light to pass through the specimen and use two lenses to form an image?

compound light microscope

21

What are microscopes that use beams of electrons, rather than light, to produce images?

electron microscopes

22

What is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world?

science

23

What is a group of cells that develops from a single original cell?

cell culture

24

What is a technique that separates the different cell parts?

cell fractionation

25

What is the basic unit of matter?

atom

26

What is formed when strong forces bind protons and neutrons together?

Nucleus

27

What is a negatively charged particle?

electron

28

What is a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom?

element

29

What are atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain?

isotopes

30

What is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions?

compound

31

What is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another?

ionic bond

32

What forms when electrons are shared between atoms?

covalent bond

33

What is the smallest unit of most compounds?

molecule

34

What is a slight attraction that can develop between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules?

van der Waals forces

35

What is an attraction between molecules of the same substance?

cohesion

36

What is an attraction between molecules of different substances?

adhesion

37

What is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined?

mixture

38

What is the substance that is dissolved?

solute

39

What is the substance in which the solute dissolves?

solvent

40

What are mixtures of water and non dissolved material known as?

suspensions

41

What system of measurement indicates the concentration of H+ ions in a solution?

pH Scale

42

What is any compound that forms H+ ions in a solution?

acid

43

What is a compound that produces hydroxide ions in a solution?

base

44

What are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH?

buffers

45

What contains the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists?

biosphere

46

What is a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring?

species

47

What are groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area?

populations

48

What are assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area?

communities

49

What is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment?

ecosystem

50

What is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities?

biome

51

What are organisms that use energy from sunlight to produce food?

autotroph/producer

52

What is it called when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates?

chemosynthesis

53

What are organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supple?

heterotroph/consumers

54

What organisms obtain energy by eating only plants?

herbivores

55

What organisms eat animals?

carnivore

56

What organisms eat both plants and animals?

omnivores

57

What organisms feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter?

detritivores

58

What organism break down organic matter?

decomposer

59

What is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten?

food chain

60

What is it called when feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions?

food web

61

What is each step in a food chain or food web called?

trophic level

62

What is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web?

ecological pyramid

63

What is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level?

biomass

64

What is the cycle in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another?

biogeochemical cycles

65

What is the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas?

evaporation

66

What is the process in which water can also enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants?

transpiration

67

What are all the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life?

nutrients

68

What is it called when certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia?

nitrogen fixation

69

What is it called when certain soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas?

dentrification

70

What is it called when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly?

limiting nutrient

71

What is the goal of science?

to investigate and understand the natural world, to explain events in the natural world, and use those explanations to make useful predictions

72

What is not the goal of science?

ask charmaine

73

What are the steps in an experiment?

ask a question
form a hypothesis
set up a controlled experiment
record and analyze results
drawing a conclusion

74

Why is it important to only test one variable at a time?

so that you can know how changing the manipulated variable effected the responding variable

75

Why do scientists publish their experiments?

so that their results can be reproduced

76

What are the 7 characteristics of living things?

they are made of cells,
reproduce,
based on a universal genetic code,
grow and develop,
obtain and use materials as energy,
respond to their environment,
maintain a stable internal environment,
change overtime

77

What are the four types of microscopes?

regular microscope
compound light microscope
TEM
SEM

78

What is the metric system?

a decimal system of measurement whose units are based on certain physical standards

79

Why do scientists use the metric system?

so that they can replicate each others experiments since most experiments involve measurements

80

What are the multiples of the metric system based on?

10

81

Describe Redi's experiment.

its the experiment with the flies and the maggots and meat and covers and not sppooontaneous generation

82

What is the Greek word for atom?

atomos

83

List the three particles that make up and atom, where they are located, what charge they have, and how many of each are located in an atom

proton- nucleus, positive, atomic number
neutron- nucleus, neutral, atomic mass minus atomic number
electron- orbits the nucleus, negative, same as proton

84

What is the basic unit of matter?

atom

85

List the first ten elements, including their abbreviation, atomic number, and atomic mass.

Hydrogen-H, 1, 1
Helium- He, 2, 4
Lithium- Li, 3, 7
Beryllium- Be, 4, 9
Boron- B, 5, 11
Carbon- C, 6, 12
Nitrogen- N, 7, 14
Oxygen- O, 8, 16
Fluorine- F, 9, 19
Neon- Ne, 10, 20

86

What is the difference between an ionic and a covalent bond?

ionic- electrons are TRANSFERRED
covalent- electrons are SHARED

87

Describe the biosphere.

the combined portions of the planets in which all life exists

88

What is the original source of energy?

sunlight

89

What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?

autotrophs produce their own food
heterotrophs rely on other organisms for food

90

How much energy is passed on to the next trophic level? Why?

10%
the rest is burned off

91

Describe the difference between nitrogen fixation and denitrification.

nitrogen fixation- some bacteria convert NITRATES into NITROGEN GAS
denitrification- soil bacteria convert NITRATES into NITROGEN GASS

92

Describe primary productivity.

the rate at which organic matter is created by producers