Biology Flashcards Preview

Exam Revision > Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Deck (143):
1

Adaptation

Inherited feature that makes it more likely for an organism to survive in a particular environment

2

Optimum range

Range at which an organism is able to thrive and most likely to survive

3

Structural adaptation

A physical feature

4

Physiological adaptation

The internal functioning of the organisms systems

5

Behavioural adaptation

The way in which an organism lives and behaves

6

Temperature gradient

Decreasing distance between different temperatures lowers the rate of heat loss

7

Plants in arid conditions

Decrease their SA:V ratio in order to retain water

8

Counter current flow

Cold veins wrap around arteries to alter temp of blood

9

Biomimicry

Looking at adaptations in nature and how they can be used for human benefit

10

Example of Biomimicry

Velcro originated from burs that stuck to material by microscopic hooks

11

What is homestasis

Maintaining conditions of body's internal environment within narrow limits despite varying external conditions

12

Homeostatic control

Temp, pH, blood volume and pressure, co2 conc, blood glucose

13

Negative feedback model

Stimulus - Receptor - Control Centre (hypothalamus) - effector - response

14

Hyperthyroidism

Overactive thyroid gland
Metabolic rate too high

15

Hypothyroidism

Inactive thyroid gland
Metabolic rate too low

16

Type 1 diabetes

Unable to produce insulin

17

Type 2 diabetes

Cells don't respond to insulin and glucose isn't absorbed

18

Beta cells

Store and produce insulin which tells cells to absorb glucose

19

Alpha cells

Produce glucagon which raises glucose levels

20

Taxonomy

Grouping objects with similar features
Provide quick information about organism

21

Field guides

In depth descriptions of species

22

Dichotomous key

Provides two options at each step to find specific species
Doesn't account for any variation

23

Binomial nomenclature

The general and scientific names of an organism
Closer first name means closer genus

24

Classical Defintion of species

Organisms that look the same

25

Biological Defintion of species

If they are able to produce a fertile offspring

26

Modern Defintion of species

Organisms that have the same number of chromosomes

27

Order of classification

Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

28

Domains

Animalia, plantae, fungi, prostista, bacteria

29

Conservative programs for biodiversity

National parks, breeding programs, bans on materials, hunting seasons

30

Types of relationships between organisms

Amenalism, commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, antagonism

31

Amenalism

One is damaged, other is unaffected
Cows walking on grass

32

Commensalism

One benefits, other is unaffected
Small fish swimming close to large sharks for protection

33

Parasitism

One benefits, other is harmed or killed

34

Mutualism

Both benefit (bird eating parasites on rhino)

35

Antagonism

Copying the features of another organism

36

Order of energy transport in trophic levels

Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumers

1st TL, 2nd TL, 3rd TL, 4th TL

37

Decomposers

Break down dead organisms and return nutrients to soil

38

Abiotic factors

Rocks, sunlight, temperature, pH, salinity

39

Biotic factors

Who eats who, producers

40

Habitat

Physical place in which an organism lives
Abiotic

41

Community

All the living things in an ecosystem
Biotic only

42

Ecosystem

All abiotic and biotic factors
Self sustaining except for sunlight

43

Keystone species

Often low in numbers, have big impact on the ecosystem, numerous organisms depend on it

44

Population

All members of one species in one area at one time

45

Size

Amount of members in the same area

46

Distribution

Spread of members in the same area

47

Density

Same amount of members in a smaller area

48

Distribution patterns

Uniform (organised pattern)
Clumped ( groups spread out)
Random

49

Immigration

Members entering a population

50

Emigration

Members leaving a population

51

Population growth

Birth and immigration - Deaths and emigration

52

Density independent

Equal chance of dying such as a flood

53

Density dependant

Higher chance of death due to high density such as disease

54

J-Curve

Exponential growth, reproduction rate increases rapidly in short time

55

S-Curve

Population increases rapidly, then slows, then goes back up, and slows

56

Predator prey relationship

As predator population increases, prey population decreases
Vice verse

57

R Species

Organisms that reproduce rapidly when resources are available, short life span, less caring required

58

K Species

Small number of babies, great care required, longer lifespans, larger in size

59

Eukaryotic cells

Plants, algae, animals, fungi
Large, distinct nucleus, complex
Membrane bound organelles and nucleus

60

Prokaryotic

Less structure, less complex, smaller
No membrane bound DNA or organelles

61

Multicellular organisms

Numerous different cells with specialised functions to create an artificial perfect environment

62

SA:V small organism v large organism

Smaller = larger surface area to volume ratio
Larger= smaller surface area to volume ratio

63

Flattened objects

Larger sa:v

64

Animals in cold environments

Large in size
Smaller SA:V which decreases heat loss

65

Animals in Hot environment

Smaller in size or large appendages
Increases SA:V which increases the rate of heat loss

66

Why do cells need to be small

Larger SA:V means quicker diffusion of gases and substances

67

Nucleus

Nuclear DNA is kept here and instructions for functioning of cells

68

Nucleolus

Ribosomal RNA is created

69

Cytoplasm

Fluid surrounding the nucleus of a cell that contains organelles

70

Ribosomes

Create protein and found on Endoplasmic reticulum or floating around in cytoplasm

71

Endoplasmic reticulum

Network of channels that transport substances around the cell

72

Golgi body

Transport proteins from rough ER out of the cell

73

Mitochondria

Site of cellular respiration

74

Centriole

Organises chromosomes in mitosis

75

Lysosome

Contain digestive enzymes for destruction of cells

76

How is protein produced in cells

Nucleus tells ribosomes to make proteins
Proteins are transported through RER to Golgi Body
Protein is modified and packaged in preparation for secretion

77

Light microscope

Uses light beam
Series of lenses
Can show living things
Not much detail

78

Electron microscope

Beam of electrons shot at substance
Hugh resolution
Black and white

79

Plant cells v animal cells

Plant cells are bigger
Contain the same organelles except no centrioles

80

Cell wall

Thick and rigid
Made from cellulose
Provides strength and structure for the cell

81

Chloroplasts

Contain chlorophyll and site of photosynthesis

82

Vacuole

Large fluid filled space
Expands against cell wall when filled for structure

83

Nucleoid

Same as a nucleus but no surrounding membrane

84

Flagellum

Extension on outside of prokaryotic cells that rotate to control cell movement

85

Plasma membrane

Regulates what enters and exits the cell
Contains phospholipid bilayer that repels water

86

Simple diffusion

Passive net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to low concentration

87

Osmosis

Net diffusion of water molecules through semi permeable membrane from region of high water concentration to low water concentration

88

Protein channel

Molecules unable to pass through phospholipid bilayer can travel through here

89

Facilitated diffusion

Passive net movement of a substance from a region of high conc to low through a protein channel

90

Carrier protein

Physically move to transport from low conc to high conc

91

Active transport

Active net movement of a substance from low conc to high conc through carrier protein

92

Examples of bulk transport

Exocytosis
Endocytosis
Phagocytosis
Pinocystosis

93

Endocytosis

Bringing something into the cell

94

Phagocytosis

Bringing in a solid specifically

95

Pinocystosis

Bringing in a liquid specifically

96

Exocytosis

Sending something out of the cell

97

ATP

Energy carrier in cells

98

Autotrophs

Any organism that produces its own glucose or food

99

Heterotroph

Organism that have to eat other organisms for energy

100

Structure of chloroplasts

Contain thylakoid disks that stack together
Stacks are called grana
Stroma is fluid around the grana
Grana contain chlorophyll

101

Light Independent stage

Occurs in grana
Water is split using sunlight into oxygen and hydrogen

102

Light dependant stage

Occurs in the stroma
Hydrogen from light independent combines with oxygen to make glucose and water

103

Equation for photosynthesis

6CO2+6H2O=C6H1206+6O2
Must have chlorophyll and sunlight present

104

Perception of light

When white light hits a leaf, all colours are absorbed except green

105

Cellular respiration

Glucose from photosynthesis is used to produce ATP
Mitochondria

106

Various sites of cellular respiration stages

Glycolysis : cytoplasm
Krebs Cycle : matrix
Electron transport : cristae

107

Cristae

Folded inner membrane of the mitochondria

108

Matrix

Fluid within the mitochondria

109

Overall equation for cellular respiration

6O2+C6H12O6= 6CO2+6H20+36ATP

110

Glycolysis formula

Glucose=2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH

111

Krebs cycle formula

2 pyruvate (from glycolysis)=6co2, 2ATP, NADH
Oxygen must be present

112

Electron transport formula

NADH(from glycolysis and krebs)+6O2=34ATP+6H2O
Oxygen must be present

113

Fermentation

No oxygen available
Pyruvate=Lactic acid or ethanol

114

Light compensation point

Rate of cellular respiration equals rate of photosynthesis

115

Limiting factor

Factor in least amount that restricts the rate of photosynthesis

116

Cuticle

Waterproof, waxy layer that protects cells, tissue and prevents excessive water loss

117

Epidermal cells

No chloroplasts
Transparent allowing sunlight to reach photosynthetic cells
Protects cells, tissue

118

Stomata

Pore through which gases and water are exchanged between leaf and air

119

Guard cells

Control whether stomata is open or closed

120

Mesophyll cells

Site of photosynthesis

121

Palisade mesophyll cells

Many chloroplasts
Tightly packed

122

Spongy mesophyll cells

Few chloroplasts
Loosely packed

123

Mouth

Teeth break food into small pieces
Saliva lubricates food and breaks down starch

124

Epiglottis

Flap that prevents food entering the lung and guides it down the oesophagus

125

Oesophagus

Food travels down this tube to the stomach
Aided by muscular contractions (peristalsis)

126

Stomach

Enzymes and gastric juices aid in digestion along with peristalsis

127

Liver

Stores excess glucose as glycogen
Produces bile

128

Gall bladder

Stores and concentrates bile before releasing into intestine

129

Pancreas

Produces digestive enzymes
Produces beta and alpha cells
Neutralises stomach acid by soda bicarbonate

130

Small intestine

Absorbs nutrients and minerals into circulatory system

131

Large intestine

Excess water is absorbed
Undigested food is excreted as faeces

132

Chemical digestion

Break complex molecules into simple molecules by enzymes

133

Mechanical digestion

Physically breaking food into smaller pieces

134

Enzymes

Sped up rate of reaction by lowering required activation energy

135

Denaturation

Change in shape of enzymes due to various factors such as temp
Substrate is unable to bind to active site

136

Peristalsis

Series of wave like muscle contractions that move food around digestive system

137

Transpiration

Passive movement of water from roots of plant to leaves
Heat energy from sun breaks bonds between water molecules, enabling evaporation
H2O molecules stick together, when Evap occurs, more water is sucked up to replace

138

Xylem

Transports water and mineral ions absorbed from roots up through plant
Big and middle

139

Phloem

Transport organic solutes such as sucrose from site of production in leaves to site of storage in roots

140

What makes an organism multicellular

Cells must communicate and work together to function as one organism
Must have different cells that are specialised for different functions
Cells must be dependant on one another for survival

141

Cell specialisation

Cells within an organism have specific functions that are vital to the survival of an organism as a whole

142

Levels of cellular organisation

Cell
Tissue
Organ
System

143

Cell theory

All organisms are composed of cells
All cells come from pre existing cells
Cells are the basic units of life