Flashcards in Biology Deck (33):
What do our Teeth do?
Physically break down food
What do the Salivary Glands do?
Contains Amylease which break down food
What does the tongue do?
Rolls food into a small ball called Bolus
What does the Epiglottis do?
Seals the Oesophagus so we don’t choke when we eat
What does the Oesophagus do?
Bolus pushes through the Oesophagus by muscle contractions (peristalsis)
what does the Gall Bladder do?
What does the liver do?
Makes Bile and secretes it to the the small intestine to digestfood and removes toxins like paracetamol
What does the Pancreas do?
Makes and secretes enzymes to the small intestine
What does the stomach do?
Food is churned by muscle contractions then is broken down by enzymes
What does the small intestine do?
Amylease, Protease and Lipase break down food into molecules so they can be absorbed
What does the large intestine do?
Water and other nutrients are absorbed by the body
What does the rectum do?
Faeces are started before being excreted by the anus
What does the anus do?
What does the villi do?
Shaped like fingers to maximize surface area to absorb more nutrients which are then sent to cells through the bloodstream
What is another name for the digestive system?
What is peristalsis?
Involuntary muscle contractions
Explain the flow chart representing the path food takes through the digestive system
Mouth to Oesophagus to stomach to small intestine to large intestine to rectum to anus
What is the difference between chemical and physical digestion?
Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces like when you chew food. Chemical digestion is the breakdown of food by chemical reactions, an example is enzymes
Why are Villi shaped like fingers?
To maximize surface area to absorb nutrients efficiently
How does food move through the Oesophagus, small intestine and large intestine?
Through peristalsis, food is pushed through these organs
What is a bolus?
A ball of food rolled up by your tongue
What enzyme is found in saliva and what does it do?
Amylease and it turns starch into glucose and breaks down carbs
What is an enzyme?
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions
How do enzymes work?
The substance that enzymes break down is called a substrate, the resulting substance is called the product. The enzyme remains unchanged at the end of the process
What happens if an enzyme is hot or cold?
Good cold and they will operate very slowly, too hot and they can change shape
What are the three types of blood cells and what do they do?
Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body, white blood cells fight disease and platelets are involved in the clotting process
What happens at the body capillaries?
Oxygen transported to cells and carbon dioxide is removed from cells
What is the heart made out of
What is cellular respiration?
The process cells undergo to make energy.
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + energy + water
How is skin involved in excretion
Excretes salts and water as sweat
How are the lungs involved in excretion
Excretes carbon dioxide (produced by cellular respiration)
How is the liver involved in excretion
Removes toxins such as paracetamol