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Flashcards in Biology Deck (87):
1

Monosaccharides

Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Ribose
Deoxyribose

2

Disaccharides

Sucrose
Maltose
Lactose

3

Polysaccharides

Starch
Cellulose
Glycogen

4

Primary Protein Structure

Chain of amino acids

5

Secondary Protein Structure

α helix and β pleated sheets
local interactions (Hydrogen bonds)

6

Tertiary Protein Structure

responsible for function

7

Quaternary Protein Structure

multiple chains folded together

8

Competitive Enzyme

resembles substrate and compete for binding

9

Noncompetitive Enzyme

binds to an allosteric site

10

Electron Transport Chain

pumps protons form the inter membranous space to the matrix

11

DNA Replication

built 5' to 3' and read 3' to 5'

12

Translation

Initiation: ribosome binds mRNA
E: tRNA binds to mRNA
T: mRNA detaches from ribosome

13

Lytic Cycle

cell dies and virus release

14

Lysogenic

virus passed on in cell division by chromosome

15

Cell Cycle

G1: cellular activities occur
G0: cycle arrests
S: DNA replicates
G2: same as G1
M: cell divides

16

Epithelial Tissues

squamous: thin and flattened
cuboidal: cube
columnar: rectangular
simple: single layer
stratified: thick sheets

17

Connective Tissues

fibroblast: collagen, elastin
mast cells: heparin and histamine
macrophages

18

Major Hormones (Posterior Pituitary)

F SH
L H
A CTH
T SH
P rolactin
E ndorphins
G rowth Hormone

19

Anterior Pituitary/Hypothalamus Hormones

ADH: helps kidneys absorb H2O
oxytocin

20

Thyroid Gland Hormones

T3,T4, and calcitonin

21

Parathyroid Gland Hormones

PTH: regulates calcium

22

Adrenal Gland Hormones

Cortex:
cortisol - raises glucose
aldosterone - regulates Na+ and K+

Medulla:
epinephrine
norepinephrine

23

Pancreas Hormones

insulin
glucagon

24

Reproductive Organs Hormones

estrogen
progesterone
testosterone

25

Pineal Gland Hormone

melatonin

26

Thymus Gland Hormone

thymosin

27

Leukocytes

Granulocytes:
neutrophils - monocytes, macrophages
(phagocytosis)
eosinophils - inflammation
basophils - heparin and histamine

Agranulocytes:
monocytes
lymphocytes - specific immunity

28

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Turns G-6-P into 5C sugars for DNA or DNA synthesis expelling 2 NADPH

29

Glycolysis

Glucose to pyruvate

2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2NADH, 2 H2O

30

Gluconeogenesis

Reverse of glycolysis

Makes glucose from amino acids

31

Irreversible steps of glycolysis

??

32

Citric Acid Cycle

Turning Pyruvate into...

1GTP, 3NADH, 1FADH2, 2CO2, and regenerates oxaloacetate

...from each molecule of glucose

In the mitochondria

33

Oxidative Phosphorylation

NADH and FADH2 are transferred to the ETC (complex I and complex II) which produce ATP

In the mitochondria

34

Final Electron Receptor

oxygen

35

Cytochrome C

carries electrons to final protein complex

36

Protein Complex I

Where NADH is oxidized pumping protons from the matrix to the inner membranous space

37

Protein Complex II

Where FADH2 is oxidized

38

Ubiquinone (Q)

electron carrier in oxidative phosphorylation

39

ATP Synthase

H+ flow from inner membranous space into the matrix making ATP

40

Isoelectric Point

a.a. has net zero charge

1/2(pka1 + pka2)

41

Michelais Menton Equation

v= (vmax [S])/(Km + [S])

Km = 1/2vmax

42

Direction Amino Acids are Synthesized

N to C

43

nucleoside

sugar and base (missing phosphate)

44

structural proteins

collagen
elastin
keratin
actin
tubulin

45

Motor proteins

myosin
kinesin
dynein

46

Cell Adhesion Molecules

cadherins
integrins
selectins

47

Lineweaver-Burk Equation

y= 1/V0
m= Km/Vmax
x= 1/[S]
b= 1/Vmax

y=mx + b

48

Enzyme Competition

Competitive: binds active site, Km increases

Noncompetitive: binds allosteric, decreased Vmax

Mixed: binds allosteric, changes Km and decreases Vmax

Uncompetitive: binds allosteric site, decreases Km and Vmax

49

DNA is read

5' to 3'

50

DNA synthesis in Prokaryotes

-one origin of replication
-DNA polymerase III synthesizes DNA
-DNA polymerase I removes RNA primers
- DNA polymerase I replaced RNA with DNA

51

DNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes

-multiple origins of replication
-DNA plymerase α and δ synthesize DNA
-RNase H removes RNA primers
-DNA polymerase δ replaces RNA with DNA

52

Northern Blotting

uses RNA to detect complementary DNA or RNA

53

Southern Blotting

uses DNA to detect complementary DNA

54

Western Blotting

uses protein to detect antibodies specific to a target protein

55

Allow mutation to occur in transcription without affecting the protein

redundancy and wobble

56

postranscriptional modifications

5' cap added
3' poly A tail added
splicing exons

57

postranslational modications

chaperone folding
formation of quaternary structures
cleavage of proteins or signals
covalent addition of biomolecules (e.g. phyosphorylation)

58

Glycolysis important proteins

-glucokinase: responsive to insulin
-hexokinase: traps glucose
-PFK1: rate limiting step
-pyruvate kinase: substrate-level phosphorylation

59

Palmitic acid

the only fatty acid that humans can synthesize

60

Insulin Inhibits

gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, lipolysis, protein catabolism, ureagenesis, ketogenesis

61

Glucagon Inhibits

glycogen, lipid, and protein synthesis

62

Glucagon Promotes

insulin

63

Lysosomes

contain hydrolytic enzymes

64

Smooth ER

lipid synthesis and detoxification

65

Rough ER

site of protein synthesis

66

Golgi Apparatus

posttranslational modification

67

Peroxisome

site of ß oxidation

68

Interphase

G1: cell increases its organelles and cytoplasm
S: DNA replication
G2: same as G1

69

Ectoderm develops

nervous system, epidermis, eye lens, inner ear

70

Endoderm develops

digestive tract, lungs, liver, pancreas

71

Mesoderm

muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, gonads, kidney

72

Role of the Liver

- gluconeogenesis
- processing nitrogenous wastes
- detoxification of wastes
- storage of iron and vitamin A
- synthesis of bile and blood proteins
- ß oxidation of fatty acids and ketones
- conversion of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids

73

Skin Layers

- corneum
- lucidium
- granulosum
- spinosum
- basalis

74

Aldosterone

- Na reabsorption
- K and H secretion
- increases water reabsorption, blood volume, and pressure

75

ADH

increases collecting duct permeability

76

Resting Potential

3Na out for 2K in

77

Depolarization

Na rushing into the cell

78

Repolarization

K rushing out of the cell

79

Synapse

- Ca rushes into cell
- neurotransmitter binds to receptors
- causes depolarization

80

Fetal Circulation

Foramen ovale: connects atria (shunts blood away from lungs)

Ductus arteriosus: pulmonary artery to aorta (shunts blood away from lungs)

Ductus venosus: umbilical vein to inferior vena cava (connects umbliical circulation to central circulation)

81

Right Shift of Hemoglobin Curve

- temperature
- bohr effect
- decreased pH (also shifts down)
- increased CO2 pressure
- increased H+

82

Protein Enzyme Production in the Pancreas

trypsin
chymotripsin
carboxypeptidase A & B

83

Protein Enzyme Production in the Intestinal Glands

aminopeptidase
dipeptidase
enteropeptidase

84

cholecystokinin (CCK)

enzyme secreted by duodenum

- stimulates secretion of pancreatic enzymes
- promotes satiety

85

Sites of Enzyme Hydrolysis

mouth
stomach
small intestine

86

Types of plasma cell antibodies

Ig: A, D, E, G, M

87

Transcriptional Regulation (Prokaryotes)

Regulated by OPERON

Operator Gene: repressor binding site
Promoter Gene: RNA polymerase binding site
Structural Genes: DNA codes for a protein