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Flashcards in BIOLOGY Deck (65):
1

Organism

An organism is a living thing. Living thing, an individual animal, plant or single called life form, is any individual entity that exhibit the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form".

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Species

Species is a group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species. Individuals who can breed together to make fertile offspring.

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Population

Population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time. All the members of the same species that live in the same ecosystem.

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Community

A community is more than one population living in the same area at a particular time. All living things/organisms, from all the population ps that live in the same ecosystem. Eg Beaver community

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Ecosystems

Ecosystems are communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment.... is a complex level of organisation made up of living (biotic) parts, such as communities of organisms, and non-living (abiotic) parts, such as the physical surroundings. All living organisms in an area and their non-living environment. -Components of an ecosystem are interrelated, Changes to one component can affect others.

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Ecology

Study of living things, their environment and interactions. Ecology is the study of ecosystems.

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Biotic Factors

The living things in an ecosystem are called biotic factors. Living things include plants, animals, bacteria, fungi and more. Living things, their remains and features Eg. Nests associated with their activities. All living things ( environment/organisms)

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Abiotic Factors

The non living parts of an ecosystem are called abiotic factors. In an ecosystem some abiotic factors are sunlight, temperature atmospheric gases water and soil. Non living characteristics of an ecosystem.

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Producers

Producer is an organism at the base of the food chain that does not need to feed on other organisms; also known as an autotroph.

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Decomposers

Organisms that break down organic matter into inorganic materials.

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Photosynthesis

the food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy from the sun....to capture light energy and use it to convert simple inorganic substances (carbon dioxide and water) into organic substances (glucose)
( Carbon Dioxide) CO2 + (water) H2O+ visible light -> glucose=C6H12O6 (sugar) + (oxygen) O2

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Autotrophs

(Producer) self feeders that can make their own food.

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Heterotrophs

(Consumer) other feeders - relies on other organisms for its food; eats for food.

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Consumer

Organism that relies on other organisms for its food

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Herbivores

animal that eats only plants

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Carnivores

an animal that eats other animals

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Omnivores

animal that eats plants and other animals

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Primary Consumer

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

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Detritivores

animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter..includes earth worms, dung beetles and crabs. Detritivores eat decay (faeces) Decomposers turns inorganic matter to organic.

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Ecological niche

the position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

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Parasitism

An interaction in which one species (the parasite) lives in or on another species(the host) from which it obtains food, shelter and other requirements.

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Competition

The struggle among organisms for food, territory, and other factors. Trying to get the same thing .. humans - land, raw materials, money, food, water, quality of life, reproductive partners.
Plants - root space, sunlight, water
Ravens/ crows - food, space, water

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Mutualism

Relationship between 2 different organisms in which both benefit.

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Commensalism

Relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other remains unaffected.

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Interspecific competition

competition between organisms of different species

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Intraspecific competition

competition between organisms of the same species

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Predator-prey relationship

Relationship between organisms in which one prey species ( predators) kills and eats another species ( prey). The predators eat the prey for survival/ food. The prey is usually herbivores or producers and are usually equipped with survival features eg. Camo, hide, fast, poisons, thorns

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Symbiotic relationship

Very close relationship between 2 organisms of different species. It may benefit or harm on of the partners.

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Distribution

The area inhabited by a plant or animal species

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Density

The number of species living within in an area

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Ecosystems

Communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

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Tolerance range

Range of an abiotic factor in the environment in which an organism can survive

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Optimum range

The range, within a tolerance range for a particular abiotic factor, in which an organism functions best.

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Biodiversity

The variety of species of biological organisms, often in relation to a particular area.

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Sampling methods

Techniques used to determine the density and distribution of various populations and communities within an ecosystem

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Transects

A sampling area along a straight line in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

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Quadrats

A sampling area, often one square metre, in which the number of organisms in the area is counted and recorded.

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Mark, release and recapture

A sampling method used to determine the abundance of mobile species. A portion of thee population is captured, marked and released. Later, another portion is captured and the number of marked individuals within the sample is counted.

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Eutrophication

a form of water pollution involving an excess of nutrients such as nitrates and phosphorus, resulting in algal blooms and possible death of fish and other organisms

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Insecticides

a chemical used to kill insects

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Fungicides

a chemical used to kill fungal growth

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Herbicides

chemical used to kill unwanted plants (weeds)

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Fumigants

chemical used in the form of smoke or fumes, to kill pests

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Bioaccumulation

magnification of concentrations of a substance such as a nonbiodegradable pesticide along the food chain; also known as biological magnification

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Biological magnification

Bioaccumulation

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Introduced species

an organism that has been released into an ecosystem in which it does not occur naturally

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Chemosynthetic

describes organisms that produce organic material using energy released from chemical reactions rather than light

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Food chains

diagram that shows how the energy stored in one organism is passed to another

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Food Webs

diagram showing several food chains joined together to demonstrate that animals eat more than one type of food

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Trophic Level

level within a food chain, food web or food pyramid

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1st order consumer

organism that is within the second trophic level of a food chain (herbivores); also known as a primary consumer

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Primary consumer

the first consumer in a food chain; also known as a first-order consumer

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Second order/ Secondary consumer

organism that is within the third trophic level of a food chain (carnivores); also known as a secondary consumer

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Energy pyramid

representation of the level of food energy at each level within a food chain

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Pyramid of biomass

representation of the dry mass of organisms at each level within a food chain

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Pyramid of numbers

representation of the population, or numbers of organisms, at each level within a food chain

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Birth rate

the number of organisms within a population that are born within a particular period of time

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Death rate

the number of organisms within a population that die within a particular period of time

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Immigration

the number of individuals moving into an area

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Emigration

the number of individuals leaving an area

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Exponential growth

rapid increase in number or size, represented by a J-shaped graph

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Sigmoid

the shape of a graph that shows a population increasing in number then reaching a plateau

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Steady state/ equilibrium/ plateaus phase

a state in which conditions are balanced and there is neither growth nor a decrease in number; also known as steady state or plateau phase

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Zero population growth

the point at which birth and death rates balance each other out

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Carrying capacity

the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain