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Grade 10 Science > Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Deck (110):
1

What is the cell theory

1. All living things are made up of one or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells (through cell division), not living matter

2

Define prokaryotic cells

Do not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

3

Give 2 examples of a prokaryotic cell

Archaea

Bacteria

4

Define Eukaryotic cell

Contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

5

Give 3 examples of Eukaryotic cells

Fungi

Plants

Animals

6

Give the function and structure for cytoplasm

Changes from jelly to liquid, allowing organelles to move around

Mostly water, and stores other substances. Contains nutrients and is jelly like

7

What is the structure and function of the cell membrane

Provides structure and allows the passage of materials in and out

Flexible, double-layered membrane

8

Structure and function of nucleus

Stores chromosomes containing DNA of the cell

Spherical structure

9

Function and structure of mitochondria

Make energy available to the cell

Oval structure, contain enzymes to convert stored energy into useable energy

10

Function and structure of endoplasmic Reticulum

Transports materials such as proteins

3D network of branching tubes

11

Function and structure of Golgi bodies

Process cellular wastes, secrete mucus

Stack of disc shaped organelles

12

Function and structure of vacuoles

Maintain pressure, remote waste, contains substances

Fluid filled sac, single layered membrane

13

Function and structure of cell wall

Supports and protects the cell

Rigid and porous membrane

14

Function and structure of chloroplasts

Absorbs light energy and turns it into glucose and oxygen

Green structure containing chlorophyll

15

How many chromosomes is a healthy baby

46

16

Define totipotent

Can only become one thing

17

Define pluripotent

Becomes anything

18

What are 2 issues with stem cell research

Taking a potential life

Expensive

19

Thickness of cell wall determine how hard the bacteria is to ________________

Kill

20

What do ribosomes do

Takes DNA and crates protein

21

Mitochondria=

Cellular Respiration

22

Cellular Respiration =

Glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + Energy

23

What are the two best ways to tell of it a plant cell

Huge vacuole in the middle

Nucleus is on the side

24

What is an Amoeba

A single cell animal

25

Wha are two things a plant cell has that an animal cell doesn’t

Cell wall

Chloroplast

26

What does an animal cell have that a plant cell doesn’t

Centrioles

27

Wha is the function of centrioles

These microtobules grow spindle fibres during cell replication

28

Where does Respiration take place and ATP molecules are produced

Mitochondria

29

What does ATP stand for

Adenosine Tri-Phoshate

(Energy molecules)

30

What is the function of chloroplast

The sites of photosynthesis

31

What is the function of the cell wall

Made up of cellulose to help maintain cell structure

32

List 3 reasons why cells need to divide

1. To reproduce
2. To grow
3. To repair

33

What is asexually

One parent

The offspring are exact copies of the parent

34

What is sexually

Two parents

This produces offspring that have genetic information from each parent

35

What does each cell produce

Two identical daughter cells

36

What is interphase

The longest stage. Cell carry out all life activities except division. The DNA strands are duplicated. It has a dark nucleus in the center

37

What is the first stage of mitosis

Prophase

38

Explain prophase

DNA condenses forming chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of 2 sister chromatids together by a centromere. Nuclear membrane starts to dissolve.

39

Explain the chromatin

The chromatin is called up to form double standard chromosomes. The 2 halves of the chromosome are called chromatids are are held together by a centromere

40

What is the second phase of mitosis

Metaphase

41

Explain metaphase

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

42

What is the third phase of mitosis

Anaphase

43

Explain Anaphase

The centromere splits and each chromatid separates. Spindle fibres pull the daughter chromosomes to each pull

44

What is the fourth stage of mitosis

Teleophase

45

Explain telophase

Daughter chromosomes lengthen and become thinner. Nuclear membrane forms

46

Explain cytokinesis

The rest of the cellular material in cytoplasm divides. The cell is pinched in the center (called the cleavage furrow) in a animal cell, and a plate is formed in a plant cell. Then interphase begins again

47

Give 3 reasons why a cell should stay in interphase and not divide

1. Signals from outside the cell tell it not to divide
2. There are not enough nutrients
3. The DNA is damaged, or hasn’t been replicated. The cell will receive a message not to divide.

48

Five top cancers in men

Prostate

Lung

Colorectal

Bladder

Melanoma

49

5 top cancers in women

Breast

Colorectal

Uterine

Lung

Cervical

50

Define cancer

A group of diseases caused when cells grow and divide out of control

51

Do cancer cells stay in interphase for a normal length of time

No

52

Cancer cells continue to _________ despite messages from nutrients and surrounding cells to stop _________ and dividing

Divide

Grow

53

Define tumour

A mass of cells that continue to grow and divide without any obvious function in the body

54

Define benign tumour

A tumour that does not affect surrounding tissues other than physically crowding them

55

Define malignant tumour

Interfere with functioning of surrounding cells, a cancerous tumour

56

Define metastasis

The process of cancer cells breaking away from the original tumour and establishing another tumour elsewhere in the body

57

Define mutation

A random changed in the DNA

58

Define carcinogen

Any environmental factor that causes cancer

59

What are the five types of diagnosis and explain

1. Endoscopy-fibre optics colon cancer
2.X-ray-bones, lungs
3. Ultrasound- soft tissues, heart, liver
4. Ct scan- X-rays from many angles brain, liver, kidneys
5. 3D model, like crazy scan, but more detailed

60

Explain biopsy

Once an abnormality is detected above, a tissue sample is taken to diagnosis

61

What are the 3 treatment options and explain

1. Surgery- cut out the tomour
2.chemotheraphy- chemically (drugs) kill the cancer
3. Radiation- radiation kills DNA of daughter cells. Beam implantation

62

When cells have DNA damage, they try to ______________ the damage. If they can’t then they __________ ____________. This is called ____________

Repair

Self-destruct

APOPTOSIS

63

Cancer cells don’t _________ ____——

Self-destruct

64

T or F

You cannot kill cancer cells by causing DNA damage to them using chemotherapy or radiation, because they resist dying

T

65

Our body begins with stem cells, these are ________________ cells

Unspecialized

66

Explain adult stem cells

Known as tissue stem cells. They exist within specialized tissues and can only differentiate into certain types of cells

67

Define platelets

Thickness blood, used for cuts to stop bleeding

68

Give a con for embryonic stem cell research

Expensive

69

Explain cellular differentiation

Is the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform particular functions

70

What are the 4 most common types of cells

Nerve cells, red blood cells, skin cells, muscle cells

71

Explain Epithelial tissue

Thin sheets of tightly packed cells line the surface of the body and in between internal organs. Used for protection

72

Give an example of epithelial cells

Skin

73

What are the four main types of animal tissues

Epithelial tissue

Connective tissue

Muscles

Nervous tissue

74

Explain connective tissue

Various types of cells and fibres held together by a liquid, a solid, or a gel known as matrix

75

What is the function of connective tissue

Support, insulation, binds and connects cells and tissue

76

Give 3 examples of connective tissu

Bone

Tendons

Blood

77

Explain muscles

Bundles of long cells called muscle fibres. They act by shortening or lengthening

78

What is the function of muscles

Movement

79

Give and example of muscle

Heart

80

Explain nervous tissue

Cells have finger- like projections to receive and transfer signals

81

What is the function of nervous tissue

Sensory, communication, coordination of body function

82

Hierarchical structure in Animals

Cell- tissue- organ- organ system- organism

83

Define organs

A structure composed of different tissues working together to perform one or several tasks

84

Define organ system

A system of one or more organs that work together to perform a series of related tasks for the body

85

How many organ systems does the human body have

11

86

What are the 2 sets of organs for the digestive tract

Gastrointestinal tract(alimentary canal)

Accessory organs

87

What does the gastrointestinal tract include

Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

88

Explain the esophagus

Carries food from the mouth to the stomach

Muscles contract to force food towards the stomach

89

Explain the stomach

Mechanical digestion by churning of muscles continues. The broken down food is mixed with enzymes and chemical digestion occurs

90

What does stomach acid do

Kills bacteria and microorganisms

91

What happens in the small intestine

Nutrients diffusers into the bloodstream

92

What are the three parts of the small intestine

Duodenum-attached to the stomach

Jejunum-middle

Lieum- attached to the large intestine

93

What is a specialized cell

A cell that performs a specific function

94

What is the job of the large intestine

Reabsorption of water

95

Where is good bacteria found(floia) found and what does it do

Colon

Helps reabsorp water

96

What does liver produce and what does it do

Bile

Breaks down fat in your food

97

What does the gall bladder do

Stores bile

98

What does the pancreas produce

Insulin

Enzymes

99

What are the 3 accessory organs

Liver

Gall bladder

Pancreas

100

What are the two functions of mucus

To protect the epithelial tissue from acids

To lubricants the good to pass easily

101

What are the 4 substances added to the food in the digestive tract to aid in digestion

Saliva

Mucus

Bile

Enzymes

102

What do enzymes do

Help digest food and add saliva to food

103

Aclcohol dehdrogenase does?

Breaks down alcohol into carbohydrates

104

What are the 3 parts of the circulatory system

Blood

Blood vessels

Heart

105

What are two things stem cells can do

Form specializes cells

Remain unspecialized and continue to divide

105

What can stem cells be used for

To treat injuries and diseases

105

What are the two types of embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells

Adult stem cells

105

Explain embryonic stem cells

Become into any kind of cell

105

What does getting stem cells from an embryo result in

The death of the fertilized human embryo

105

What is the digestive system responsible for

Breaking down food molecules into components small enough to diffuse into the cell