Flashcards in Biology and Behavior Deck (76):
bigger brain, more psych attributes. Untrue however began idea of physiology with psych.
first study with, major sections of the brain using ablation or extirpation-surgically removing, specificity.
father of american psychology. believed important to study how mind functioned in adapting to environment (functionalism)
criticized the concept of reflex arc (breaking down process of reacting to stimulus) He thought psych should focus on study of organism as whole and its adaptation
behavioral deficits of people with brain damage. he found that unable to talk is due to lesion in specific area of left side of brain (broca)
Hermann von Helmholtz
first to measure speed of nerve impulse by measuring reaction time. He transitioned psychology into natural science
Sir Charles Sherrington
inferred existence of synapses. mostly electrical at the time, but we know now it is mostly chemical
sensory nerves also known as?
afferent neurons, they carry info from receptors to central
motor nerves are also known as?
efferent neurons, they carry info from central to receptors
found between other neurons and mostly in central system linked to reflexive behavior (reflex arc)
reflex arc example
when stepping on nail, sensory nerves send info to brain, but before that interneurons inform muscles to react
Peripheral Nervous system divided into which 2?
somatic and autonomic
Autonomic is part of Central or Peripheral?
and which 2 systems does it divide into?
sympathetic and parasymoetictc
major divisions of the nervous system
Central and PNS. PNS--> somatic and autonomic
autonomic ---> sympathetic and parasympetic
thick sheath if connective tissue which covers the brain to protect and anchored to skill
layers of brain
dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
human brain divided into 3 subdivisions
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
brainstem is formed by both....
hindbrain and midbrain
which major subdivision was formed last?
forebrain (specially the cerebral cortex which is for language problem solving planning)
where brain meets spinal cord. controls balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, and arousal.
During embryonic development, rhombencephalon divided to form myelencephalon and mesencephalon. What are these also known as?
1. myelencephalon- medulla oblongata (breathing, heart, bp)
2. mesencephalon- pons (sensory and motor) and cerebellum (posture and balance)
receives sensory and motor information from rest of body and responsible for involuntary reflex responses triggered by visual or auditory stimuli.
2 nuclei in the midbrain
superior collliculis (receives visual sensory input) and inferior colliculus (receives auditory sense system, reflexive reaction to loud noises)
cognitive, behavioral processes, emotion, and memory, characteristics of humans
During prenatal development, the forebrain divides to form (telencephalon) and (diencephalon), what are thesE?
telencephalon- cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system)
diencephalon- thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands)
involves placing electrodes on scalp to record broad paterns of electrical activity in specific areas. noninvasive and used often
rCBF (regional cerbral blood flow)
noninvasive as well, patient inhales gas and then CT, PET, or MRI are taken of the brain
structure within forebrain, that serves to relay incoming sensory information of all senses, besides smell, to the cerebral cortex.
emotional experiences, aggresive, and sexual behavior. Controls endocrine functions of autonomic nervous system. Homeostatic properties for regulation metabolism, temp, water balance.
types of hypothalamus
lateral hypothalamus- triggers eating.
ventromedial hypothalmus- satiety center, obesity
anterior hypothalamus- sexual
site of release of hypothalmic hormones, antiduirtic hormone and oxytocin
biological rhythm, secretes melatonin for circadian rhythm, receiving signals from retina for sunlight
muscle movement as it receives info from cortex and relays info to brain and spinal. Associated with smooth muscle movements
extrapyramidal motor system
gathers info and sends it to brain and spinal cord
distortions of portions of basal ganglia, jerky movements, due to death of dopaminergic neurons near substantial nigra
group of interconnected structures looping around brain for emotion and memory primary
Septal Nuclei- pleasure centers
Amygdala- defensive, aggressive, fear, rage. damage to it may reduce aggresion
Hippocamous- memory, long term mapping, can redistribute memories to cerebral cortex.
Hippocampus uses this to communicate wth other limbic structures
unable to form new long term memories
unable to remember events before injury
the bumps and folds on cerebral cortex are called___ and they provide additional surface area
gyri and sulci, respectively
1. prefrontal cortex (manages executive function by directing operations of other brain regions) perception, memory, emotion, impulse, planning, and alertness
- it is an association area, which integrates diverse inputs from various regions
2. motor cortex - located on pre central gyrus, in front of central sulcus which divides frontal and parietal. a=motor neurons arranged through motor homonoculus organized systematically by degree of finer motor skills.
3. brocas area- speech, left hem.
Auditory complex. wernick's area is language reception and comprehension.
visual cortex , striate
dominant hemisphere is one that controls...
language production (brocas) and language perception (Werneckies)
non dominant hemisphere is related to
intuition, creativity, music cognition, spatial.
dominant hemisphere is one that controls...
language production (brocas) and language perception (Werneckies). Usually left hemisphere even in left handed people.
non dominant hemisphere is related to
direction, intuition, creativity, music cognition, spatial,
in PNS, used for nerve impulses to muscles. In CNS, used for attention and arousal. Loss of it, leads to alzheimers disease
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine and Dopamine are all types of
Catecholamines. All classified as monoamines
norepinephrine usually acts at a ___ level as NT, epinephrine acts as a ____
involved with movement, low levels lead to parkinson's and jerky movement. Schizophrenia maybe hypothesis?
hyper polarizing, thus inhibitory in central. Stabalizing
inhibitory in central by increasing Chloride by causing hyperpolarizastion
excitatory NT in central
peptide NT (endorphins)
also called neuromodulators. Slow and longer effects.
Endorphins are peptides
natural painkillers produced by body
endocrine system is slower than nervous bc it is through..
hormones in blood.
hypothalamus connects endocrine to nervous.
regulates hormonal function of pituitary gland.
Hypophyseal portal system, connects which 2 organs?
hypothalamus and pituitary gland
anterior pituitary gland
master, and controlled by hypothalamus
Pituatary glands cause other endocrine glands to ____
activate and release
adrenal glands divided into
adrenal medulla (released Ep and Norep) and adrenal cortex (cortisol release and sex hormones test and estrogen)
gonads or sex glands also produce..
Adaptive value of a behavior
extent to which the trait positively benefits a species by influencing evolutionary fitness.
Nature vs nurture
genetic inheritance vs environment learned trait
monozygotic twins (identical) vs dizygotic twins (fraternal)
100% same genes, vs 50%
Neurulation (ectoderm overlying notochord begins to furrow), forms neural groove with 2 folds. Cells on folds called neural crest which will migrate to body forming stuff. Remainder: form neural tube forming CNS with alar plate (sensory) and basal plate (motor)
Embryonic brain begins at three swellings of
prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. (pmr)
final three swellings of embryonic brain are:
telencephalon, dieencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalin. (td3M)
fetus attached to uterine wall and placenta (supplying food, O, water, returning waste) by the
X ray radiation during pregnancy can lead to
retardation, defects of skull, spinal cord, eyes, and limb deformities
primitive reflexes in children disappear with age
1. rooting reflex (turning of head in direction of stimulus that touches cheek) such as nipples or sucking and swallowing things)
2. moro reflex (infants react to abrupt movements by flinging their arm and crying)- last 4 months
3. Babinsiki reflex- causes foot to spread apart automatically when sole is touched
4. grasping reflex- closing fingers after someone touches
Adults may experience promotive reflexes in the loss of ____ _____
gross vs fine motor skills
gross motor skills- large muscle groups and fine are toes, fingers and eyes. Eye fine motor mints happen first
after separation and stranger anxiety, kids have parallel play in which they interact alongside without influencing each other. Age 3: gender and name identity. Age 5: conformity to peers and romantic feelings. 6-12 same gender friends and teenage more independence