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Flashcards in Biology and Behavior Deck (76):
1

Franz Gall

bigger brain, more psych attributes. Untrue however began idea of physiology with psych.

2

Pierre Flourens

first study with, major sections of the brain using ablation or extirpation-surgically removing, specificity.

3

William James

father of american psychology. believed important to study how mind functioned in adapting to environment (functionalism)

4

john Dewey

criticized the concept of reflex arc (breaking down process of reacting to stimulus) He thought psych should focus on study of organism as whole and its adaptation

5

paul Broca

behavioral deficits of people with brain damage. he found that unable to talk is due to lesion in specific area of left side of brain (broca)

6

Hermann von Helmholtz

first to measure speed of nerve impulse by measuring reaction time. He transitioned psychology into natural science

7

Sir Charles Sherrington

inferred existence of synapses. mostly electrical at the time, but we know now it is mostly chemical

8

sensory nerves also known as?

afferent neurons, they carry info from receptors to central

9

motor nerves are also known as?

efferent neurons, they carry info from central to receptors

10

interneurons

found between other neurons and mostly in central system linked to reflexive behavior (reflex arc)

11

reflex arc example

when stepping on nail, sensory nerves send info to brain, but before that interneurons inform muscles to react

12

Peripheral Nervous system divided into which 2?

somatic and autonomic

13

Autonomic is part of Central or Peripheral?
and which 2 systems does it divide into?

Peripheral
sympathetic and parasymoetictc

14

major divisions of the nervous system

Central and PNS. PNS--> somatic and autonomic
autonomic ---> sympathetic and parasympetic

15

meninges

thick sheath if connective tissue which covers the brain to protect and anchored to skill

16

layers of brain

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

17

human brain divided into 3 subdivisions

hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

18

brainstem is formed by both....

hindbrain and midbrain

19

which major subdivision was formed last?

forebrain (specially the cerebral cortex which is for language problem solving planning)

20

Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)

where brain meets spinal cord. controls balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, and arousal.

21

During embryonic development, rhombencephalon divided to form myelencephalon and mesencephalon. What are these also known as?

1. myelencephalon- medulla oblongata (breathing, heart, bp)
2. mesencephalon- pons (sensory and motor) and cerebellum (posture and balance)

22

Midbrain (mesencephalon)

receives sensory and motor information from rest of body and responsible for involuntary reflex responses triggered by visual or auditory stimuli.

23

2 nuclei in the midbrain

superior collliculis (receives visual sensory input) and inferior colliculus (receives auditory sense system, reflexive reaction to loud noises)

24

Forebrain (prosencephalon)

cognitive, behavioral processes, emotion, and memory, characteristics of humans

25

During prenatal development, the forebrain divides to form (telencephalon) and (diencephalon), what are thesE?

telencephalon- cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system)
diencephalon- thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands)

26

EEG

involves placing electrodes on scalp to record broad paterns of electrical activity in specific areas. noninvasive and used often

27

rCBF (regional cerbral blood flow)

noninvasive as well, patient inhales gas and then CT, PET, or MRI are taken of the brain

28

thalamus

structure within forebrain, that serves to relay incoming sensory information of all senses, besides smell, to the cerebral cortex.

29

hypothalmus

emotional experiences, aggresive, and sexual behavior. Controls endocrine functions of autonomic nervous system. Homeostatic properties for regulation metabolism, temp, water balance.

30

types of hypothalamus

lateral hypothalamus- triggers eating.
ventromedial hypothalmus- satiety center, obesity
anterior hypothalamus- sexual

31

pituitary glands

site of release of hypothalmic hormones, antiduirtic hormone and oxytocin

32

pineal glands

biological rhythm, secretes melatonin for circadian rhythm, receiving signals from retina for sunlight

33

Basal Ganglia

muscle movement as it receives info from cortex and relays info to brain and spinal. Associated with smooth muscle movements

34

extrapyramidal motor system

gathers info and sends it to brain and spinal cord

35

parkinson's disease

distortions of portions of basal ganglia, jerky movements, due to death of dopaminergic neurons near substantial nigra

36

Limbic System

group of interconnected structures looping around brain for emotion and memory primary
Septal Nuclei- pleasure centers
Amygdala- defensive, aggressive, fear, rage. damage to it may reduce aggresion
Hippocamous- memory, long term mapping, can redistribute memories to cerebral cortex.

37

Hippocampus uses this to communicate wth other limbic structures

fornix

38

anterograde amnesia

unable to form new long term memories

39

retrograde amnesia

unable to remember events before injury

40

the bumps and folds on cerebral cortex are called___ and they provide additional surface area

gyri and sulci, respectively

41

Frontal Lobe

1. prefrontal cortex (manages executive function by directing operations of other brain regions) perception, memory, emotion, impulse, planning, and alertness
- it is an association area, which integrates diverse inputs from various regions

2. motor cortex - located on pre central gyrus, in front of central sulcus which divides frontal and parietal. a=motor neurons arranged through motor homonoculus organized systematically by degree of finer motor skills.

3. brocas area- speech, left hem.

42

temporal lobe

Auditory complex. wernick's area is language reception and comprehension.

43

occipital lobe

visual cortex , striate

44

dominant hemisphere is one that controls...

language production (brocas) and language perception (Werneckies)

45

non dominant hemisphere is related to

intuition, creativity, music cognition, spatial.

46

dominant hemisphere is one that controls...

language production (brocas) and language perception (Werneckies). Usually left hemisphere even in left handed people.

47

non dominant hemisphere is related to

direction, intuition, creativity, music cognition, spatial,

48

Acetylcholine

in PNS, used for nerve impulses to muscles. In CNS, used for attention and arousal. Loss of it, leads to alzheimers disease

49

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine and Dopamine are all types of

Catecholamines. All classified as monoamines

50

norepinephrine usually acts at a ___ level as NT, epinephrine acts as a ____

local
hormone

51

Dopamin

involved with movement, low levels lead to parkinson's and jerky movement. Schizophrenia maybe hypothesis?

52

GABA

hyper polarizing, thus inhibitory in central. Stabalizing

53

Glycine

inhibitory in central by increasing Chloride by causing hyperpolarizastion

54

glutamate

excitatory NT in central

55

peptide NT (endorphins)

also called neuromodulators. Slow and longer effects.

56

Endorphins are peptides

natural painkillers produced by body

57

endocrine system is slower than nervous bc it is through..

hormones in blood.

58

hypothalamus connects endocrine to nervous.

regulates hormonal function of pituitary gland.

59

Hypophyseal portal system, connects which 2 organs?

hypothalamus and pituitary gland

60

anterior pituitary gland

master, and controlled by hypothalamus

61

Pituatary glands cause other endocrine glands to ____

activate and release

62

adrenal glands divided into

adrenal medulla (released Ep and Norep) and adrenal cortex (cortisol release and sex hormones test and estrogen)

63

gonads or sex glands also produce..

sex hormones

64

Adaptive value of a behavior

extent to which the trait positively benefits a species by influencing evolutionary fitness.

65

Nature vs nurture

genetic inheritance vs environment learned trait

66

monozygotic twins (identical) vs dizygotic twins (fraternal)

100% same genes, vs 50%

67

Prenatal development

Neurulation (ectoderm overlying notochord begins to furrow), forms neural groove with 2 folds. Cells on folds called neural crest which will migrate to body forming stuff. Remainder: form neural tube forming CNS with alar plate (sensory) and basal plate (motor)

68

Embryonic brain begins at three swellings of

prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. (pmr)

69

final three swellings of embryonic brain are:

telencephalon, dieencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalin. (td3M)

70

fetus attached to uterine wall and placenta (supplying food, O, water, returning waste) by the

umbilical cord

71

X ray radiation during pregnancy can lead to

retardation, defects of skull, spinal cord, eyes, and limb deformities

72

primitive reflexes in children disappear with age

such as:
1. rooting reflex (turning of head in direction of stimulus that touches cheek) such as nipples or sucking and swallowing things)
2. moro reflex (infants react to abrupt movements by flinging their arm and crying)- last 4 months
3. Babinsiki reflex- causes foot to spread apart automatically when sole is touched
4. grasping reflex- closing fingers after someone touches

73

Adults may experience promotive reflexes in the loss of ____ _____

myelin sheaths

74

gross vs fine motor skills

gross motor skills- large muscle groups and fine are toes, fingers and eyes. Eye fine motor mints happen first

75

Social development:

after separation and stranger anxiety, kids have parallel play in which they interact alongside without influencing each other. Age 3: gender and name identity. Age 5: conformity to peers and romantic feelings. 6-12 same gender friends and teenage more independence

76

pituitary gland vs pineal gland

stimulates hormonal response throughout body vs melatonin release for sleep