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Flashcards in Biology and Behavior Deck (52):
1

Idea of phrenology is

if a particular trait was well0developed, then the part of the brain responsible for that trait would expaind.

2

extripation is

ablation

3

ablation is

surgically removing parts of the brain to observe behavioral consequences

4

motor neurons

efferent, motor information from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

5

interneurons

between other neurons

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most numerous neuron

interneurons

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interneurons are located

predominantly in the brain and spinal cord

8

interneurons are linked to

reflexive behavior

9

functionalism -

system of thought in psychology that studied how mental process help individuals adapt to their environments

10

sensory neurons

afferent, transmit sensory information from receptors to the spinal cord and brain

11

Controls reflexive behavior

neural circuits called reflex arcs

12

CNS is composed of

brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system is composed of

nerve tissue and fibers outside the brain and spinal cord, including all 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves

14

what cranial nerves are CNS

Olfactory and optic nerves are outgrowths of CNS

15

Somatic nervous system consists of

sensory and motor neurons distributed through the skin, joints, an dmuscles

16

Autonomic nervous system regulates

heartbeat, respiration, digestion, and glandular secretions - involuntary muscles associated with many internal organs and glands, body temp

17

How does autonomic nervous system regulate body temp

activating sweat and piloerection

18

Divisions of ANS

Parasympathetic and sympathetic

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Main roles of parasympathetic

conserve energy - rest and digest

20

Parasympathetic NTs

ALL Acetylcholine

21

Parasympathetic functions

Constricts pupil - sleepy
Stimulates flow of saliva - digest
constricts bronchi - sleepy
slows heartbeat - sleepy
stimulates peristalsis and secretion - digest
stimulates bile release - digest
contracts bladder - sleepy (gotta pee when you wake up)

22

Sympathetic is activated by

stress, fight or flight, rage and fear reactions

23

types of stress that can activate sympathetic

mild stressor to emergencies

24

Sympathetic functions

Dilates pupils - scared
inhibits salivation - flight (dry mouth)
relaxes bronchi - fight/flight (need o2)
accelerates heartbeat - running flight
stimulates sweating and piloerection - flight/running scared goosebumps
stimulates glucose production and release - need energy to run
secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline - fight/flight
inhibits bladder contraction - don't want to pee when you're running
stimulates orgasm

25

sympathetic NTs

Preganglionic release - ALL Acetylcholine
Postganglionic release - Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetycholine, Norepinephrine & Epinephrine

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Sympathetic postganglionic norepinephrine release to

heart and vessels

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Sympathetic postganglionic acetylcholine release to

sweat glands and vessels

28

Sympathetic postganglionic Dopamine release to

renal vessels

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Sympathetic postganglionic norepinephrine & epinephrine release to

blood at adrenals for heart and vessels

30

somatic nervous system release what NT

Acetylcholine for

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parasympathetic release Acetylcholine from what and to what

vagus nerve and to hearts and vessels

32

meninges -

thick sheath of connective tissue that covers the brain

33

meninges function

protection and anchors brain within the skull, resorb cerebrospinal fluid

34

layers of meninges from outer to inner starting with skin

skin > periosteum > skull bone > dura mater > arachnoid mater > pia mater

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cerebrospinal fluid is

aqueous solution that brain and spinal cord rest in

36

cerebrospinal fluid is produced by

specialized cells that line the ventricles of the brain ((ependymal)

37

basic subdivisions of the brain

hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

38

hindbrain has what principal structures

cerebellum, medulla oblongata, reticular formation

39

midbrain has what principal structures

inferior and superior colliculi

40

forebrain has what principal structures

cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, thalamus, hypothalamus

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where are brain structures associated with basic survival functions

base of the brain

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where are brain structures associated with complex functions

higher up

43

evolutionary terms, what brains structures developed earlier

hindbrain and midbrain

44

hindbrain and midbrain form

brainstem

45

brainstem is the most

primitive region of the brain

46

limbic system is a

group of neural structures assoc with emotion and memory

47

emotions related to limbic

aggression, fear, pleasure and pain

48

most recent evolutionary development of the brain is

cerebral cortex

49

cerebral cortex is the

outer covering of the cerebral hemisphere

50

brain develops from

the neural tube

51

neural tube is composed of

three swelling that correspond to hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

52

alcohol impairs the functioning of the

cerebellum - affects speech and balance