Glycogen-Lactic acid system
1- the convesion of muscle's: glycogen ► glucose
2- (aeorobic) glucose ► lactic acid
Once lactic acid is formed in muscles cells, it diffuses out into blood stream and intestitial fluid (IF).
Infection and sedimentation rate
Most acute generalized infections and some local infections raise the rate of sedimentation. A raised sedimentation rate may be among the first signs of an otherwise hidden disease.
Aldostrone and urine tonicity
Aldostrone indirectly regulates urine tonicity by controlling the Na+ levels in ascending limb of the loop of Henly.
Second phase of hematocrit procedure
In the second phase of the procedure, the tube is centrifuged so that its contents separate into three layers
1- packed red blood cells (RBC's- erythrocytes) at the bottom.
2- a reddish gray layer of white blood cells (WBC's -leukocytes) and platelets in the middle.
3- Plasma at the top. The hematocrit is expressed as the percentage of the total blood volume occupied by the packed red blood cells.
Two sources of generating pressure gradient in circulatory system and their impact on the net movement of fluid with respect to vessels:
1- hydrostatic- generated by the heart
Pushed the fluid out of the vessels.
2- oncotic- created by and depends on the total number of plasma particles
Draws the fluid into the vessels.
Heart beat initiation and regulation
Heart beat is initiated by SA node and regulated (not controlled) by the accelarator and vagus nerves.
Selective B-cell X-linked genetic disease
The diffense that might remain intact or change as a result
B-cells are absent in male infants. Child becomes ill at 8-9 months of age ( when deprived of mother's passive immunity).
It's indicated by the absence of circulating Ab's.
Recurrent bacterial infection
Defense ag. virus and fungi is intact.
Purpose of TCA
Generating high energy intermediates which can be used for ATP production.
A mutation that dosn't involve a change in the base sequence of DNA.
Non-disjunction (faliure to seperate)
How many ATP molecules are produces from the oxidation of 2 molecules of glucose, as a result of substrate-level phosphorylation only?
Substrate-level phosphorylation: ATP synthesis directly linked/ coupled with glucose degradation, without participation of any intermediates such as NAD+.
For each molecule of glucose:
2 ATP (Glycolysis) + 1 Net ATP(TCA)
Therefore: 2 x (3)
* THE ANSWER MUST BE VERIFIED
Net number of ATP (molecule/1 glucose) produced bu an obligate anaerobe?
2 net ATP
Only glycolysis and fermentation are present in obligate anaerobes.
Obligate aeorobe, on the other hand, produces 36-38 molecules of ATP per one molecule of glucose.
Two types of chromosomal non-disjucnction and their corresponding phase
Homolog chromosomes- meiosis I
Sister chromatids- meiosis II
Hormones of adrenal gland
- Glucocorticosteroid- e.g. Cortisole/ adrenal cortex
- Mineralocorticoids- e.g. aldosterone/ adrenal cortex Aldostrone (indirect, Na+, ascending loop)
- Catecholamines- e.g. epinephrine and norepinephrine/ adrenal medula
Fate/removal of lactic acid during recovery
1- diffuses out of muscles cells into blood and IF.
a- lactic acid → pyruvate
b- lactic acid → glucose (liver) → glycogen ( replenish depleted glycogen of the muscle cells).
Note: part of muscle's glycogen-lactic acid system
Selective T-Cell disease
The diffense that might remain intact or change as a result
Due to underdevelopment or absence of thymus
Normal cirulatin Ab's. However, impaired defense ag. viral and fungal infections.
Note: This syndrome along with Burton's agammaglobulinemea are ideal case to distinguish between the functioning of B and T cells.
Natural passive immunity
1- Transfer of Abs through placenta
2- Administration of RhoGAM to Rh- female- Goal: to prevent sensitization against the Rh+ fetus.
Note: Passive immunity is transient since only Ab's and not the B cells have been transfered.
The layer of hematocrit with the potential to indicate the presence of hemophilia.
Hint: sex-linked genetic disorder with dificiency/abnormality in clotting factors.
Layer 3- to layer, plasma otherwise known as the liquid portion of blood.
Mutations that result in non-functional proteins
frameshift and non-sense
Functions of Placenta
1- Secretion - HCG
2- Absorption- Nutrients from maternal blood spc. during the first half of pregnancy.
3- Excretion of CO2
Note: Placenta dosn't protect against toxins since it is permeable.
Hematocrit and sedimentation rate
During phase 1- The tube is allowed to stand for one hour, after which the sedimentation rate (how rapidly blood cells settle out from plasma ) is determined.
Explain how the depth of each layer of hematocrit is affected in the following diseases/conditions:
The red blood cell layer is abnormally thick in the disease polycythemia and too thin in iron-deficiency anemia;
white blood cells are too abundant in leukemia; and plasma is deep yellow in jaundice (often caused by liver disease).
organic (less involved), carriers NADH
Vitamins are great examples of coenzymes.
Organics can be both coenzymes and cofactors
minerals ( more involved)
Mg2+in DNA Pol.
Name an oxidoreductase that requires NADH as a coenzyme.
Pyruvate + NADH ⇔ Lactic acid + NAD+
An enzyme that transfers functional groups
An enzyme that joins two molecule
An enzyme that moves electrons
e.g. lactate dehydrogenase
An enzyme that forms isomers, with an example
e.g. phospoho-gluco isomerase
G6P → F6P
An enzyme that breaks bonds with H2O.
With example- Hint: Proteins.
Commonly seen in hydrolysis rxn of peptide bonds.
Lys-Ala + H2O → Lys + Ala
e.g. Serine hydrolase
An enzyme that breaks bonds WITHOUT H2O (Not a hydrolase) and/or via oxidation-reduction (Not an oxidoreductase).
With example- Hint: Urea Cycle
Arginosuccinate → Arg + Succinate
E: arrginosuccinate lyase
Four general categorization of enzymes:
1- transfer proton (Acid/Base): enol-keto tautomerization
2- transfer electron- Decarboxylation
3- Charge stabilization- Po3 2- stabalized by the Mg2+ of DNA POL.
4- Inc. freq. of appropriate collisions.
Abnormal RBC's production by the bone marrow (BM).