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Flashcards in Biology cell organisation Deck (48):

What is an organ?

A group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function


The organ stomach, what tissues are they made up from and what are there functions?

-Muscular = moves stomach wall to churn up food
-Glandular = makes digestive juices
-Epithelial = covers the out and inside of the stomach


What is a organ system?

A group of organs working together to perform a particular function.


What organs are the in the digestive system and what do they do?

-Glands= produce digestive juices
-Stomach= digest food
-liver= produces bile
-small intestine= absorbs soluble food molecules
-large intestine= absorbs water from undigested food, leaving faeces


What do organs work together to make?



What is a catalyst?

A substance which increases the peed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction


What is the lock and key theory?

When the enzyme has an active site with a unique shape, this needs a substrate to fit into its active site


What do carbohydrases convert carbohydrates into, and where are they made?

Simple sugars, they are made in the salivary glands pancreas and small intestine


What do proteases convert proteins into, and where are they made?

Amino acids, they are made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine


What do lipases convert lipids into , and where are they made?

Glycerol and fatty acids, they are made in the pancreas and small intestine


Where does bile come from?

The gall bladder


What does bile do?

It neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats


What does the small intestine produce?

Protease, amylase and lipase enzymes for digestion


Where are the protease, amylase and lipase released from the pancreas?

The small intestine


What is the breakdown of food catalysed by?



What PH do stomach enzymes work best?

At a low PH


What PH do small intestine enzymes work best?

At a higher PH


What is the formula for rate of reaction?

Rate = 1000/time


What test do we use to test for sugars , and what colour will it go if its positive?

Benedict's, green , yellow or brick-red


What test do we use to test for starch , and what colour will it go if its positive?

Iodine solution, black or blue-black


What test do we use to test for proteins, and what colour will it go if its positive?

Biuret, pink or purple


What test do we use to test for lipids, and what colour will it go if its positive?

Sudan III, two layers it will be red on the top if positive


Where does the air you breathe go through, this splits into 2 tubes what is it called?

The trachea, slits called bronchi= one going up to each lung


What are the smaller tubes after the bronchi?

Bronchioles, these then go into small bags called alveoli, where gas exchange take place.


What does the right ventricle pump, and where does it go ad take?

Deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen


What doe the left ventricle do?

Pumps oxygenated blood around all the other organs of the body. The blood gives up its oxygenated cells and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped out to the lungs again.


What are the 4 chambers f the heart?

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and the left ventricle


What happens when the heart contracts?

Blood flows into the2 atria from the vena cava and the pulmonary vein, then the atria contracts, pushing the blood into the ventricles, the ventricles contract forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta out of the heart. The blood then flows through the organs through arteries and returns through the veins, the atria fill again and the whole cycle starts over


What does the arteries do and what are they like?

They carry blood away from the heart under pressure. They have thick layers of muscle and strong elastic fibres, the walls are thick compared to the lumen(the middle bit)


What does the capillaries do and what are they like?

The capillaries are very small and they carry the blood very lose to every cell, they have permeable walls the also supply blood and oxygen and are only one cell thick


What does the veins do and what are they like?

The veins take the blood back t the heart, the capillaries eventually join up with the veins, the blood is in lower pressure in the veins, they have a bigger lumen than the arteries to help the blood flow through they also have valves to keep the blood flowing in the right direction


What is the pigment called in a red blood cell?



What help blood to clot?



What liquid carry's everything in the blood?



What does a stent do?

Pushes fatty deposit out of the artery


What do statins do?

Reduces the cholesterol in the blood


What is the difference between a communicable and a non-communicable disease?

C diseases spread from person to person or animals and people where as N-C disease that cannot be spread from people to people


What is cancer caused by?

The uncontrolled cell growth and division


What is the role of the epidermal tissue?

covers the whole leaf


What is the role of the palisade mesophyll tissue?

where most photosynthesis happens


What is the role of the spongy mesophyll tissue?

contains big air spaces to allow gases to diffuse in and out of cells


What is the role of the xylem and phloem?

to transport water, mineral ions and food around the plant


What is the role of the meristem tissue?

are able to differentiate into different types of cell, allowing the plant to grow


What do phloem tubes transport?

Food made in the leafs to the rest of the plant this transports in both directions, this is called translocation


Whereto xylem tubes take water?

Up, they carry water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves this then comes out the leaves called transpiration


What is transpiration?

The loss of water from a plant


What 4 things is transpiration affected by?

-Light intensity
-Air flow


What does a photometer used to estimate?

transpiration rate