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Flashcards in Biology cell organisation Deck (48):
1

What is an organ?

A group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function

2

The organ stomach, what tissues are they made up from and what are there functions?

-Muscular = moves stomach wall to churn up food
-Glandular = makes digestive juices
-Epithelial = covers the out and inside of the stomach

3

What is a organ system?

A group of organs working together to perform a particular function.

4

What organs are the in the digestive system and what do they do?

-Glands= produce digestive juices
-Stomach= digest food
-liver= produces bile
-small intestine= absorbs soluble food molecules
-large intestine= absorbs water from undigested food, leaving faeces

5

What do organs work together to make?

Organisms

6

What is a catalyst?

A substance which increases the peed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction

7

What is the lock and key theory?

When the enzyme has an active site with a unique shape, this needs a substrate to fit into its active site

8

What do carbohydrases convert carbohydrates into, and where are they made?

Simple sugars, they are made in the salivary glands pancreas and small intestine

9

What do proteases convert proteins into, and where are they made?

Amino acids, they are made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine

10

What do lipases convert lipids into , and where are they made?

Glycerol and fatty acids, they are made in the pancreas and small intestine

11

Where does bile come from?

The gall bladder

12

What does bile do?

It neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats

13

What does the small intestine produce?

Protease, amylase and lipase enzymes for digestion

14

Where are the protease, amylase and lipase released from the pancreas?

The small intestine

15

What is the breakdown of food catalysed by?

Enzymes

16

What PH do stomach enzymes work best?

At a low PH

17

What PH do small intestine enzymes work best?

At a higher PH

18

What is the formula for rate of reaction?

Rate = 1000/time

19

What test do we use to test for sugars , and what colour will it go if its positive?

Benedict's, green , yellow or brick-red

20

What test do we use to test for starch , and what colour will it go if its positive?

Iodine solution, black or blue-black

21

What test do we use to test for proteins, and what colour will it go if its positive?

Biuret, pink or purple

22

What test do we use to test for lipids, and what colour will it go if its positive?

Sudan III, two layers it will be red on the top if positive

23

Where does the air you breathe go through, this splits into 2 tubes what is it called?

The trachea, slits called bronchi= one going up to each lung

24

What are the smaller tubes after the bronchi?

Bronchioles, these then go into small bags called alveoli, where gas exchange take place.

25

What does the right ventricle pump, and where does it go ad take?

Deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen

26

What doe the left ventricle do?

Pumps oxygenated blood around all the other organs of the body. The blood gives up its oxygenated cells and the deoxygenated blood returns to the heart to be pumped out to the lungs again.

27

What are the 4 chambers f the heart?

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and the left ventricle

28

What happens when the heart contracts?

Blood flows into the2 atria from the vena cava and the pulmonary vein, then the atria contracts, pushing the blood into the ventricles, the ventricles contract forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta out of the heart. The blood then flows through the organs through arteries and returns through the veins, the atria fill again and the whole cycle starts over

29

What does the arteries do and what are they like?

They carry blood away from the heart under pressure. They have thick layers of muscle and strong elastic fibres, the walls are thick compared to the lumen(the middle bit)

30

What does the capillaries do and what are they like?

The capillaries are very small and they carry the blood very lose to every cell, they have permeable walls the also supply blood and oxygen and are only one cell thick

31

What does the veins do and what are they like?

The veins take the blood back t the heart, the capillaries eventually join up with the veins, the blood is in lower pressure in the veins, they have a bigger lumen than the arteries to help the blood flow through they also have valves to keep the blood flowing in the right direction

32

What is the pigment called in a red blood cell?

Haemoglobin

33

What help blood to clot?

Platelets

34

What liquid carry's everything in the blood?

Plasma

35

What does a stent do?

Pushes fatty deposit out of the artery

36

What do statins do?

Reduces the cholesterol in the blood

37

What is the difference between a communicable and a non-communicable disease?

C diseases spread from person to person or animals and people where as N-C disease that cannot be spread from people to people

38

What is cancer caused by?

The uncontrolled cell growth and division

39

What is the role of the epidermal tissue?

covers the whole leaf

40

What is the role of the palisade mesophyll tissue?

where most photosynthesis happens

41

What is the role of the spongy mesophyll tissue?

contains big air spaces to allow gases to diffuse in and out of cells

42

What is the role of the xylem and phloem?

to transport water, mineral ions and food around the plant

43

What is the role of the meristem tissue?

are able to differentiate into different types of cell, allowing the plant to grow

44

What do phloem tubes transport?

Food made in the leafs to the rest of the plant this transports in both directions, this is called translocation

45

Whereto xylem tubes take water?

Up, they carry water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves this then comes out the leaves called transpiration

46

What is transpiration?

The loss of water from a plant

47

What 4 things is transpiration affected by?

-Temperature
-Light intensity
-Air flow
-Humidity

48

What does a photometer used to estimate?

transpiration rate