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Flashcards in Biology: Chemistry Of Life Part 2 Deck (69):
1

Water is indispensable for all life forms

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Water molecules are polar 2

1. Attract other water molecules
2. Stick together in liquid form

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Water molecules stick together in liquid form unless

Temperature rises to boiling point or drops to freezing point

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Polar molecules are attracted to water

Hydrophilic

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Non polar molecules are not attracted to water

Hydrophobic

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Water has a high heat capacity

Ability to absorb and hold heat

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Takes a large amount of energy to break the many hydrogen bonds in water

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Water helps stabilize temperature inside cells

Chemical reactions inside cells produce heat

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Evaporation causes heat loss

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Water is a superb solvent 2

1. Ions and polar molecules dissolve easily in it
2. Dissolved substance called a solute

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Most of body's chemical reactions occur in water based solutions

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Free radicals 2

1. Molecules released by oxidation reactions in the cells
2. Missing electron in outer shell
• can easily attract an electron from a stable molecule

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Large numbers of free radicals can pose threat to many molecules, including DNA

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An antioxidants can give up a free electron to the free radical

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15

Phytochemical's containing antioxidants 3

1. Lycopene
2. Vitamin C and flavonoids
3. Lutein

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Foods containing Lycopene

Tomatoes
Strawberries
Watermelon

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Foods containing vitamin C and flavonoids

Citrus fruits
Cantaloupes
And plums

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Foods containing Lutein

Leafy greens

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Nutritionists recommend eating foods high in these phytochemical's

Rather than using supplements

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Chemical reactions constantly add and remove substances from body fluids

Body must manage these changes

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pH scale 2

1. Measures the relative concentration of H+ in fluids
2. Pure water is neutral, with pH of 7

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Small pH changes can drastically affect life processes

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Acid donates protons( as H+)

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Example of acidic solutions

Lemon juice and black coffee

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Classified as weak or strong acid

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Base accepts H+

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Examples of basic solutions

Household bleach and dissolved baking soda

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Compounds that release ions other than H+ and OH- in solutions

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Many salts ions have key cell functions

Nerve impulses rely on ions of sodium, potassium, calcium

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Buffers 3

1. Substances that compensate for pH changes
2. Pairs of buffers operate as a balancing system
3. Buffer system failure disrupts homeostasis

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Substances that compensate for pH changes

Can either donate or accept a hydrogen ion

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Pairs of buffers operate as a balancing system

Action of buffer can only bid. Or release hydrogen ion

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Buffer system failure disrupts homeostasis

Acidosis or alkalosis

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Molecules of life 4

1. Biological molecules contain carbon
2. Organic compounds
3. Inorganic compounds
4. Carbon has versatile bonding behavior

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Organic compounds 2

1. Contain carbon and at least one hydrogen atom and can be functional groups
2. Functional groups affect chemical behavior

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Inorganic compounds 2

1. Contain elements other than carbon
2. Example: water

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Chemical reactions in cells 3

1. Condensation reaction
2. Hydrolysis reaction
3. Other reaction

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Condensation reaction

1. Causes water to be released
2. Two molecules covalently bond into a larger one

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Hydrolysis reaction

Causes water to be added
1. Molecule splits into two smaller ones

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Other reactions

Transfer functional groups or electrons from one molecule to another

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Types of molecules 3

1. Enzymes
2. Polymer
3. Larger biological molecules

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Enzymes

Proteins that speed reactions

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Polymer 2

1. Molecule built of three or more subunits
2. Each subunit called a monomer

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Larger biological molecules 4

1. Carbohydrate
2. Protein
3. Lipid
4. Nucleic acid

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Cells use carbohydrates for energy

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Simple sugars ( mono or di)

Simplest carbohydrate

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Oligosaccharides

Short chain of sugar units

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Polysaccharides 3

1. Sugar chains that store energy
2. Examples: glycogen, starch
3. And cellulose

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Fatty acids attached to glycerol

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Types of lipids 3

1. Saturated
2. Unsaturated
3. Triglycerides

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Uses of lipids in cells 4

1. Store energy
2. Signaling molecules
3. Structural materials
4. Phospholipids build cell membranes

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Sterols 2

1. Components of membranes
2. Precursors of steroid hormones and other vital molecules

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Organic compounds built with chains of amino acids 2

1. Twenty different kinds of amino acids
2. Thousands of different proteins built by the body

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Twenty different kinds of amino acids

Small organic compounds

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Amino acids linked with peptide bonds 2

1. Dipeptide or polypeptide chain
2. Sequence of amino acids determines proteins primary structure

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Proteins fold into complex shapes that determine their function

Coils, sheets, and loops

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Protein may have more than one polypeptide chain

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Lipoproteins have lipids attached

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Glycoproteins have sugars attached

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Disrupting a proteins shape prevents it from functioning normally

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Nucleotide

Composed of one sugar, at least phosphate, and one nitrogen-containing base

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ATP

Specific nucleotide involved in chemical reactions in cells

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Some nucleotides are part of coenzymes

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Nucleic acids

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Nucleic acids

DNA's and RNA's

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Water is a great solvent because it has both negative and partial positive charges, which means it can bind to anything

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Biological molecules contain

Carbon

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Carbon bonds to 3

1. Hydrogen
2. Oxygen
3. Nitrogen

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The more oxygen in a molecule the more energetic it will be why

Because oxygen is very energetic