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Flashcards in BIOLOGY COPY Deck (29)
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1

What does a nucleus do in a cell?

It controls the cell's activities and contains the genetic material for cellular reproduction.

2

What is the function of cytoplasm?

It's where most of the chemical reactions take place in a cell

3

What does the cell membrane do?

It controls what comes in and goes out of a cell.

4

What do mitochondria do?

Sub-cellular structures where aerobic respiration takes place

5

What do ribosomes do?

Ribosomes synthesise proteins

6

What is a cell wall made of?

Cell walls are plants' cells - they are made of cellulose to strengthen the cell.

7

What is the function of chloroplasts?

Chloroplasts - found in plant cells - make glucose (food) for the plant through photosynthesis.

8

Name the two main kinds of cell

Prokaryotic cells (bacterial) Eukaryotic cells (plant, animal, fungal)

9

What are some of the main differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic cells are: Smaller Genetic material is not in a nucleus Genetic material is in a single DNA loop and there may be one or more small rings of DNA called PLASMIDS They do not contain mitochondria or chloroplasts

10

What kind of shapes can bacteria have?

Spherical Spiral Rod Curved rod

11

What are flagella?

Tails on cells to move them around (e.g. sperm cells or bacteria)

12

Explain the nature of plasmids

They are loops of DNA found in bacteria. They can be transferred from one cell to another, allowing bacteria to pass genes around. They are also useful for scientists to insert genes into different bacteria.

13

Define 'resolution' in the context of microscopes

The ability to discern more than one object - e.g., cells can't be seen with the naked eye, but under a microscope, they begin to be 'resolved'.

14

What do electron microscopes do?

They pass electrons through a specimen being 'viewed' giving a much clearer image.

15

What is the formula for calculating magnification?

Magnification = size of image/size of real object

16

What sub cellular structure controls activities in the cell?

Nucleus

17

Where are proteins made in a cell?

On the ribosomes

18

Note three structures found in plant cells that are not found in animal cells

Cell wall Chloroplasts Permanent vacuole

19

What is the function of cell sap?

To support the cell

20

Where is DNA found in bacteria?

Floating plasmids

21

Arrange in order of size (largest to smallest) bacterium, liver cell, nucleus, ribosome

Liver cell Nucleus Bacterium Ribosome

22

What is a micrometre?

 

1x10-6(m)

 

 

23

What is an ecosystem

All the organisms living in a habitat and all the non-living parts of that habitat

So - snails and rocks!

polar bears and ice!

 

24

Define biological competition

Living species trying to get enough resources to survive

25

What is interdependence?

Different species relying on each other for food, shelter, pollnation, seed dispersal...

 

If one species is removed, it can affect the whole community. 

26

Define abiotic

non-living

"a"- as a prefix means "without" in Greek

27

Define biotic

"Living"

bios in Greek means life.

28

Define four abiotic factors that affect living communities

light intensity

temperature

moisture levels

soil pH and mineral content

wind intensity and direction

C02 levels for plants

O2 levels for animals

29

Define three biotic factors that can affect a habitat

Changes in food availability

Change in number of predators

Introduction of pathogens/diseases

One species outcompeting another