Biology - Topic 4 - Natural Selection and Genetic Modification Flashcards Preview

GCSE Science Edexcel Combined > Biology - Topic 4 - Natural Selection and Genetic Modification > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology - Topic 4 - Natural Selection and Genetic Modification Deck (45):
1

What is this a definition of: ‘A group of organisms that can reproduce with one another, producing offspring that can also reproduce’?

species

2

What is the scientific name for the modern human species?

Homo sapiens

3

From what type of creature are modern humans thought to have evolved?

apes

4

What are the remains of organisms that have been turned into rock called?

fossils

5

Sedimentary rock exists in layers, one of top of another. Which layers are the youngest?

upper (top) layers

6

Which substance did early human-like animals make tools out of?

wood, stone

7

Why do we only find the stone tools now?

the wooden ones have rotted away

8

Which of these three species is most closely related to modern humans and how can you tell:Homo habilisAustralopithecus afarensisArdipithecus ramidus ?

Homo habilis, because the first word of its scientific name is the same as that of modern humans.

9

On which continent are the oldest human-like fossils found?

Africa

10

What is this a definition of: ‘A gradual change in the characteristics of a species over time’?

evolution

11

Where does the evidence come from that humans evolved?

fossils, stone tools

12

Over how many years can scientists trace human evolution?

4-5 million years

13

Name one trend that has occurred in the bodies of human-like species as they have evolved over millions of years.

walking upright, feet with short toes, larger brains, flatter faces, taller skulls, etc.

14

What are the differences in characteristics between two organisms called?

variation

15

Suggest one reason why polar bears are better adapted than black bears to living in the Arctic.

they are white and so can avoid being seen against the snow by their prey

16

What is the name of the scientist who is most well known for developing a theory about evolution?

Charles Darwin

17

Some scientists think that a species called Homo heidelbergensis evolved into both Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. What is a species that evolves into two species like this called?

common ancestor

18

What do we call the system of scientific naming for organisms?

binomial system

19

Suggest the environmental change that resulted in the evolution of African elephants’ large ears

increase in temperature

20

Suggest the environmental change that resulted in the evolution of woolly mammoths’ hairiness

decrease in temperature

21

A certain population of animals evolved long legs over a long period of time. Is this more likely to be due to an increase or decrease in the number of predators?

increase

22

What process does Darwin’s theory use to explain how evolution occurs?

natural selection

23

The binomial name for the African bush elephant is Loxodonta africana. What genus does it belong to?

Loxodonta

24

Elephants belong to the animal kingdom. What other kingdoms are there?

plants, fungi, protists/protoctists, bacteria (prokaryotes)

25

State one way in which the cells of bacteria are different to those of animals, plants, fungi and protists.

They have no nucleus/mitochondria/organelles. They have plasmids. They don’t have chromosomes (instead they have a loop of chromosomal DNA).

26

Cattle, wheat and mushrooms are all farmed. What kingdoms do they belong to?

cattle – animals; wheat – plants; mushrooms – fungi

27

The scientific name for cattle is Bos taurus. What genus do they belong to?

Bos

28

What domain do Bos mutus (wild yaks) and Bos taurus (cattle) belong to?

Eukarya

29

What are the features of the Eukarya domain?

They have nuclei/mitochondria in their cells.

30

Name the other two domains.

Bacteria, Archaea.

31

The three-domain system was developed because while Archaea looked like bacteria/ prokaryotes they had other characteristics more like plants and animals. What were these other characteristics?

They have genes containing unused sections of DNA.

32

There are about 800 different types of farm cattle that all belong to the same species. What is the name for different types of the same species of animal?

breeds

33

What is the name for different types of the same species of plant?

varieties

34

What is the name of the process in which individuals are chosen to be bred together in order to develop a new breed or variety with useful characteristics?

selective breeding

35

Which process inserts a gene for a particular characteristic into another organism so that it produces that characteristic?

genetic engineering / modification

36

What term describes humans choosing certain organisms because they have useful characteristics?

artificial selection

37

Give an example of a species of animal that has been produced by selective breeding.

dogs, cows, sheep etc

38

What word describes all the DNA in an organism?

genome

39

What three-letter abbreviation is given to organisms that have been genetically engineered?

GMO

40

What word describes the amount of useful product that can be obtained from a farmed plant or animal?

yield

41

Suggest a characteristic that would be useful in a new variety of lettuce.

e.g. better taste, quicker growing, greater yield, disease resistance

42

Suggest a characteristic that would be useful in a new breed of sheep.

e.g. leaner meat, quicker growing, greater yield, disease resistance, ability to withstand certain conditions, more wool

43

Which term describes bacteria that are no longer affected by antibiotics?

resistant

44

Why are organisms genetically modified?

to produce a new useful characteristic

45

Why can a gene from one kind of organism produce the characteristic it codes for in a different organism?

Genes work in the same way in all organisms