Biology Unit 1 Booklet 2 Cells, Cell transport, Cholera Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Unit 1 Booklet 2 Cells, Cell transport, Cholera Deck (120):
0

Convert m to cm

X 100

1

Convert cm to mm

X 10

2

Convert mm to micrometers

X 1000

3

Convert micrometers to nm

X 1000

4

Working out magnification

Magnification = measure scale bar in mm x conversion factor
----------------------------------------------------
Number on scale bar

5

Working out actual size

Actual size = measure organelle in mm x conversion factor
---------------------------------------------------
Magnification

6

Working out magnification without a scale bar

Magnification = measure organelle in mm x conversion factor
----------------------------------------------------
Actual size in micrometers

7

Advantages of optical microscope

Small
Relatively mobile
View live specimen

8

Disadvantage of optical microscope

Poor resolution because light has a long wavelength

9

Two types if electron microscope

Transmission
Scanning

10

Transmission microscope

A beam if electrons through a sample so internal parts of the cell and organelles can be viewed
Produces 2D image in black and white called a micrograph

11

Scanning microscope

Send a beam of electrons which bounces off the surface of a molecule
Build up a 3D image of external surfaces

12

Advantage if electron microscope

Sorter wavelength therefore better resolution

13

Disadvantage of electron microscopes

Vacuum is expensive
Can't view living things

14

Example of a Prokaryotic cell

Vibrio cholerae

15

An example if a eukaryotic cell

Epithelial cell

16

Prokaryotic cell
All bacteria possess a cell wall which is a mixture if sugars and peptide called...
This provides...

Peptidoglycan (murein)
A physical barrier against mechanical damage

17

Prokaryotic cell
Many bacteria also possess an external layer for further production

Capsule

18

Prokaryotic cell
Cholera bacteria also have a ______________ which rotates at its base and is used for moving through liquids

Flagellum

19

Prokaryotic cell
Inside the cell, what selectively controls the substances entering on leaving the cell?

Plasma membrane

20

Prokaryotic cell
Some Organelles are found dispersed in

Cytoplasm

21

Prokaryotic cells
The ___ S _________________ are where the cells proteins are made. These are found floating around freely in the cytoplasm

70
Ribosomes

22

Prokaryotic cells
The DNA of the bacterium is not not held within a membrane bound nucleus- the structure is known as

Nucleoid

23

Prokaryotic cell
The DNA is ___________ and does not form ___________________________________

Circular
Chromosomes associated with proteins

24

Prokaryotic cells
Many bacteria also contain smaller rings of DNA possessing important genes for the survival of the bacterium called...
E.g..........

Plasmid
Antibiotic resistance

25

Matrix is

Solution full of enzymes

26

Cristae is

Increased surface area for respiration

27

Stroma is

Liquid

28

Granum (stack of thylakoids)

Absorbs light for photosynthesis
Chlorophyll

29

What has ribosomes

Prokaryotes
Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

30

What has rough endoplasmic reticulum

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

31

What has smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

32

What has Golgi apparatus

Anima eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

33

What has a cytoplasm

Prokaryotes
Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

34

What has a plasma membrane

Prokaryotes
Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

35

What has a plasmodesma

Plant eukaryotes

36

What has a chloroplast

Plant eukaryotes

37

What has centrioles

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

38

What has a nucleoid

Prokaryotes

39

What has a nucleolus

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

40

What has plasmids

Prokaryotes

41

What has microvilli

Animal eukaryotes

42

What has a flagellum

Prokaryote

43

What has a capsule

Prokaryotes

44

What has mitochondria

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

45

What has a cell wall

Prokaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

46

What has lysosomes

Animal eukaryotes
Plant eukaryotes

47

Explain about ATP

Produced by mitochondria
During aerobic respiration

48

Mitochondria can be found in

Rib muscles
Heart
Brain
Muscles

49

ATP is needed for

Muscle contractions
Active transport
Nerve impulses

50

Fractionation happens in three steps

Homogenisation
Filtration
Ultracentrifugation

51

Why ice cold

Slows down enzymic activity of the lysosomes to prevent the broken lysosomes from digesting other organelles

52

Why isotonic

Prevents water entering or leaving the organelle by osmosis so that the organelle does not burst or shrink

53

Why buffer solution

Maintains a constant pH so that proteins within the organelle are not denatured and so the organelles do not lose their structure

54

Why homogenate

Remove cell debris

55

Heaviest to lightest organelles

Cell debris
Nuclei
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes

56

What is a saturated fatty acid

There are no double bonds between carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain

57

Unsaturated fatty acids

Has double bonds between carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain

58

A triglyceride

A glycerol
3 fatty acids
A condensate reaction

59

Fluid mosaic model

Cell membrane structure
Protein molecule in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids
Bilayer is rigid

60

Fluid mosaic model
Why fluid

Semi liquid
Contain cholesterol

61

Fluid mosaic model
Why mosaic

Made of different molecules

62

Functions of membrane protein

Intercellular communications
Transport
Immune functions
Structural purposes
Enzymes
Receptors (glycoproteins)

63

Lipids contain the element

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

64

Main role of lipids

Insulation
Internal organ protection
Buoyancy in some aquatic animals
Water proofing in some animals e.g. Bird feathers

65

Triglycerides are formed by the condensation of

Three fatty acids
On molecule of glycerol

66

Di glycerine

Two fatty acids
One fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate group
One molecule of glycerol

67

The bond that joins glycerol to a fatty acid

Ester bond

68

If there is a concentration difference, what will take place down the concentration gradient

Diffusion

69

Diffusion is

The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane

70

What law applies to diffusion across any surface

Fick's law

71

Diffusion transport does not need ATP therefore is

Passive

72

The only molecules that can diffuse passively are

Small
Non polar
Lipid soluble

73

Cells that are efficient at diffusion have

Large surface area to volume ratio
I.e. large surface area, small volume

74

The smaller the cell, the more efficient it will be because

Surface area to volume ration will be higher

75

The molecule that diffuse across the membrane by facilitated diffusion are

Large water soluble molecules like glucose and amino acids
Ions such as Na+, K+, Cl-

76

To get across hydrophobic zone in facilitated diffusion, what are used

Transmembrane proteins

77

Facilitated diffusion
The transmembrane protein can act as ____________ or _______________

Carriers-> big -> glucose
Channels -> small -> ions

78

Facilitated diffusion is ____________ it needs no energy

Passive

79

Facilitated diffusion down or against the concentration gradient?

Down

80

A cell may need to move molecules or ions across the membrane against a concentration gradient by

Active transport

81

Active transport only uses

Carrier proteins

82

Active transport needs energy from

ATP

83

In active transport, each protein is

Specific

84

Endo and exocytosis needs __________ to work

ATP

85

Endocytosis takes materials into the cell - how

The membrane folds in and engulfs the material
This creates a vesicle

86

Exocytosis works by

Vesicles formed inside the cell ( from the Golgi body) empty the contents to the outside

87

Pure water has.

A low water potential

88

Water potential is measured in

Kilo pascals (kPa)

89

Water can pass freely across the membrane but solute can't therefore

Water will pass thought the membrane from a solution of high (less negative) water potential to a more negative

90

Osmosis is

The net movement of water from an area of less negative water potential to an area of more negative water potential across a selectively permeable membrane

91

Hypotonic red blood cell

Lynsey

92

Isotonic red blood cell

Normal

93

Hypertonic red blood cell

Shrivelled

94

Hypertonic plant cell

Plasmolyzed

95

Isotonic plant cell

Flaccid

96

Hypotonic plant cell

Turgid

97

Simple diffusion
Energy required?

No ATP

98

Simple diffusion
Direction of flow?

Down concentration gradient

99

Simple diffusion
Carrier protein / phospholipid / channel?

Phospholipids

100

Simple diffusion
Molecules?

Small, non polar, lipid soluble (CO2, O2)

101

Simple diffusion
How to speed it up?

Increase temperature
Increase surface area
Decrease diffusion pathway
Increase concentration gradient

102

Facilitated diffusion
Energy required?

No ATP

103

Facilitated diffusion
Direction of flow?

Down a concentration gradient

104

Facilitated diffusion
Carrier protein/ phospholipid / channel?

Carrier and channel protein

105

Facilitated diffusion
Molecules?

Amino acids
Glucose
Ions

106

Facilitated diffusion
How to speed it up?

Increase temperature to optimum
Increase surface area
Decrease diffusion pathway
Increase concentration gradient
Increase carrier protein number

107

Active transport
Energy required?

Needs ATP

108

Active transport
Direction if flow?

Against concentration gradient

109

Active transport
Carrier / phospholipid / channel?

Carrier protein

110

Active transport
Molecules?

Minerals, ions ( glucose, amino acids)

111

Active transport
How to speed it up?

Increase temperature to optimum
Increase surface area
Decrease diffusion pathway
Increase concentration gradient
Increase carrier protein number
Increase mitochondria

112

Osmosis
Energy required?

No ATP

113

Osmosis
Direction of flow?

Down a concentration gradient

114

Osmosis
Carrier / phospholipid / channel?

Phospholipid

115

Osmosis
Molecules?

Water

116

Osmosis
How to speed it up?

Increase temperature
Increase surface area
Decrease diffusion pathway
Increase concentration gradient

117

Process of cholera infection

Bacterium anchors to small intestines epithelial cells using flagellum so it does not get flushed out
Secretes a protein by exocytosis, one part binds to a specific receptor (protein is complementary to the shake of the receptor )
Other protein ( exotoxins) binds and disrupts Cl- ion channel found in the epithelial cell membrane
Cl- ion diffuses from elks into the lumen ( passive, down gradient - low to high )
Water potential of lumen is more negative and water potential of cells are less negative
H2O moves from less to more negative water potential ( from cells to lumen )

118

Treatment for cholera

Oral rehydration therapy
Antibiotics
Vaccine

119

Rehydration solution contains

Sodium which encourages reabsorption if water
Glucose which stimulates uptake of sodium and provides energy
Potassium which stimulates appetite
Boiled water