Flashcards in Biology Unit 4 Deck (115):
In order for a cell to survive, it must _____________________ , therefore cells must stay small.
Maintain a high surface area to volume ratio
What are the stages to a cell's life?
"____________" produces 2 genetically identical cells
What are some reasons for cells to divide?
To pass (genetic/protein synthesis) information to next generation..
What are the two types of cell division?
Mitosis and Meosis
Do all cells divide?
What are some kinds of cells that do not divide?
Red blood cells
What part of the cell is the most important during cell division?
Why is the nucleus so important during cell division?
Because it holds the DNA
What is the DNA like in prokaryotic cells?
It is singular, circular molecule that is twisted and folded into compact package
Eukaryotic cells contain much more ____________ than prokaryotic cells
The DNA in eukaryotes is found in ______________
Chromosomes are made up of what?
Genes are part of the __________
DNA (refer back to model)
_____________ are structures that contain genes (physical carriers of genes)
How many chromosomes do humans have?
How many chromosomes do cats have?
How many chromosomes do dogs have?
How many chromosomes do sheep have?
Most species have between how many chromosomes?
A species can't reproduce if the ___________ does not match
Each chromosome contains ___________
A _____________ is a portion of DNA molecule that contains the necessary information to make a protein
What is a gene exactly?
A portion of DNA molecule that contains the necessary information to make a protein
How many genes do humans have?
More than 100,000
What are the long, uncoiled chromosomes (interphase) called?
What is chromatin?
Long, uncoiled chromosomes
In each ______________, there is a single DNA molecule containing identical sets of information
What is a chromatid?
A single DNA molecule containing identical sets of information
A _______________ is the point where two chromatids are attached
What is a centromere?
The part of the metaphase chromosomes where two chromatids are attached
In the first step of DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA _____________/unzips exposing free ______________. (__________)
___________________ reads exposed nucleotides and retrieves ________________. (Occurs in opposite directions)
What fills in the gaps between added nucleotide?
What does DNA ligase do?
Fills in the gaps between added nucleotide
After DNA ligase fills in gaps between the added nucleotides, ______________ "roof reads"
After DNA polymerase "proof reads", the two resulting strands of DNA _______________
WIND BACK UP
What is the end result of DNA replication?
There are two copies of each DNA molecule with each molecule being half original and half new
What is the term that is used to describe each DNA molecule being half original half new?
Only a single parent takes part in which type of reproduction?
How many parents are used in asexual reproduction?
In asexual reproduction, offspring have hereditary traits that are _____________________
IDENTICAL TO SINGLE PARENT
In what kind of reproduction do the offspring have hereditary traits identical to single parent?
______________ reproduction is rapid
_________________ reproduction is very efficient
What is the basis of asexual reproduction?
There is genetic uniformity in what type of reproduction? (clones)
In sexual reproduction, there are how many parents?
There are two parents in which type of reproduction?
In sexual reproduction, gametes fuse to form a ________________
Gametes fuse to form a zygote in what kind of reproduction?
There is genetic variability in which form of reproduction?
What is a gamete?
A SEX CELL
Meiosis is also called _________________
Gametogenesis is another name for _____________
Meiosis is what kind of division?
`A REDUCTION DIVISION
________________ is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half, and thus maintains the correct chromosome number during sexual reproduction (fertilization)
A REDUCTION DIVISION
What is a reduction division?
a type of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes, maintaining the correct chromosome number during sexual reproduction.
How many division stages/phases does meiosis require?
What are the two division stages of meiosis division called?
There is no duplication during _________________
_______________ are similar in length, shape, other features, and carry similar attributes
What is a homologous chromosome?
A chromosome that is similar in length, shape, other features, and carry similar attributes
__________________ contain only one member of each homologous chromosome pair
What is another way two write "haploid" cells?
What is a haploid cell?
A cell containing only one member of each chromosome pair
Fully formed gametes are ____________
__________________ cells contain both members of a homologous pair
What is another way to write "diploid" cells?
Most human somatic cells are _________________
_______________ is the formation of sex cells
__________ is the formation of 4 sperm cells
_________ is the formation of 1 egg cell and 3 polar bodies
__________ occurs in somatic tissues
Mitosis produces _________ cells
What kind of cells does mitosis produce?
How many divisions per cycle does Mitosis go through?
Mitosis goes from __________ cells to _____________ cells
What is the basis for asexual reproduction?
Mitosis is the basis for ________________
What is the basis for asexual reproduction?
___________ occurs in the reproductive organs
Meiosis produces ___________
How many divisions per cycle does meiosis go through?
Meiosis goes from _____________ cells to ___________ cells
Meiosis is the basis for _______________ reproduction
What is the basis for sexual reproduction?
___________ is the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei
What is fertilization?
THE FUSION OF THE EGG AND SPERM NUCLEI
What does fertilization do?
It re-establishes the Diploid (2n) chromosome number
What is the cell formed by fertilization called?
ZYGOTE (fertilized egg)
The "book" of protein-building instructions
What do DNA molecules use to "write the book" of protein building instructions?
What is the process of making RNA from DNA?
______________ catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the unwound portion during transcription
What replaces thymine in RNA?
What would be the corresponding RNA sequence from this sequence of DNA?
During transcription, what is the newly formed strand of RNA called?
MESSENGER RNA or mRNA
____________ carries the message of how to make the protein
_____________ can leave the nucleus through nuclear pores and enter into the cytoplasm where it can then begin building proteins
_______________ is the process of making a protein from mRNA
__________ are groups of 3 nucleotides "triplets"
UGG is an example of what?
What do triplet codons correspond to?
(remember the chart)
SPECIFIC AMINO ACIDS
What is it called when some triplet codons code for the same Amino Acid?
____________ reads the message in groups of three
In what order does transcription and translation occur?
What make proteins?
A STRING OF AMINO ACIDS
mRNA becomes attached to the ______________
What is rRNA?
What goes and gets the amino acid?
What is tRNA?
rRNA reads the mRNA and directs _____________ to pick up necessary amino acids
What are amino acids bonded together by?