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Flashcards in Biology Unit 4 Deck (115):
0

In order for a cell to survive, it must _____________________ , therefore cells must stay small.

Maintain a high surface area to volume ratio

1

What are the stages to a cell's life?

BORN
WORK
DIVIDE
DIE

2

"____________" produces 2 genetically identical cells

DIVIDING

3

What are some reasons for cells to divide?

To repair/replace
To pass (genetic/protein synthesis) information to next generation..
For growth

4

What are the two types of cell division?

Mitosis and Meosis

5

Do all cells divide?

No

6

What are some kinds of cells that do not divide?

Nerve cells
Skeletal muscle
Red blood cells

7

What part of the cell is the most important during cell division?

The nucleus

8

Why is the nucleus so important during cell division?

Because it holds the DNA

9

What is the DNA like in prokaryotic cells?

It is singular, circular molecule that is twisted and folded into compact package

10

Eukaryotic cells contain much more ____________ than prokaryotic cells

DNA

11

The DNA in eukaryotes is found in ______________

THE NUCLEUS

12

Chromosomes are made up of what?

Genes

13

Genes are part of the __________

DNA (refer back to model)

14

_____________ are structures that contain genes (physical carriers of genes)

CHROMOSOMES

15

How many chromosomes do humans have?

46

16

How many chromosomes do cats have?

38

17

How many chromosomes do dogs have?

78

18

How many chromosomes do sheep have?

54

19

Most species have between how many chromosomes?

10-50 chromosomes

20

A species can't reproduce if the ___________ does not match

Chromosome number

21

Each chromosome contains ___________

Genes

22

A _____________ is a portion of DNA molecule that contains the necessary information to make a protein

GENE

23

What is a gene exactly?

A portion of DNA molecule that contains the necessary information to make a protein

24

How many genes do humans have?

More than 100,000

25

What are the long, uncoiled chromosomes (interphase) called?

CHROMATIN

26

What is chromatin?

Long, uncoiled chromosomes

27

In each ______________, there is a single DNA molecule containing identical sets of information

CHROMATID

28

What is a chromatid?

A single DNA molecule containing identical sets of information

29

A _______________ is the point where two chromatids are attached

CENTROMERE

30

What is a centromere?

The part of the metaphase chromosomes where two chromatids are attached

31

In the first step of DNA replication, the double-stranded DNA _____________/unzips exposing free ______________. (__________)

UNWINDS
NUCLEOTIDES
DNA HELICASE

32

___________________ reads exposed nucleotides and retrieves ________________. (Occurs in opposite directions)

DNA POLYMERASE
COMPLIMENTARY NUCLEOTIDE

33

What fills in the gaps between added nucleotide?

DNA LIGASE

35

What does DNA ligase do?

Fills in the gaps between added nucleotide

36

After DNA ligase fills in gaps between the added nucleotides, ______________ "roof reads"

DNA POLYMERASE

37

After DNA polymerase "proof reads", the two resulting strands of DNA _______________

WIND BACK UP

38

What is the end result of DNA replication?

There are two copies of each DNA molecule with each molecule being half original and half new

39

What is the term that is used to describe each DNA molecule being half original half new?

SEMI-CONSERVATIVE REPLICATION

40

Only a single parent takes part in which type of reproduction?

ASEXUAL

41

How many parents are used in asexual reproduction?

ONE

42

In asexual reproduction, offspring have hereditary traits that are _____________________

IDENTICAL TO SINGLE PARENT

43

In what kind of reproduction do the offspring have hereditary traits identical to single parent?

ASEXUAL

44

______________ reproduction is rapid

ASEXUAL

45

_________________ reproduction is very efficient

ASEXUAL

46

What is the basis of asexual reproduction?

MITOSIS

47

There is genetic uniformity in what type of reproduction? (clones)

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

48

In sexual reproduction, there are how many parents?

TWO

49

There are two parents in which type of reproduction?

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

50

In sexual reproduction, gametes fuse to form a ________________

ZYGOTE

51

Gametes fuse to form a zygote in what kind of reproduction?

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

52

There is genetic variability in which form of reproduction?

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

53

What is a gamete?

A SEX CELL

54

Meiosis is also called _________________

GAMETOGENESIS

55

Gametogenesis is another name for _____________

MEIOSIS

56

Meiosis is what kind of division?

`A REDUCTION DIVISION

57

________________ is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes by half, and thus maintains the correct chromosome number during sexual reproduction (fertilization)

A REDUCTION DIVISION

58

What is a reduction division?

a type of cell division that halves the number of chromosomes, maintaining the correct chromosome number during sexual reproduction.

59

How many division stages/phases does meiosis require?

TWO

60

What are the two division stages of meiosis division called?

IPMAT IPMAT

61

There is no duplication during _________________

INTERPHASE TWO

62

_______________ are similar in length, shape, other features, and carry similar attributes

HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES

63

What is a homologous chromosome?

A chromosome that is similar in length, shape, other features, and carry similar attributes

64

__________________ contain only one member of each homologous chromosome pair

HAPLOID CELLS

65

What is another way two write "haploid" cells?

(n) cells

66

What is a haploid cell?

A cell containing only one member of each chromosome pair

67

Fully formed gametes are ____________

HAPLOID

68

__________________ cells contain both members of a homologous pair

DIPLOID

69

What is another way to write "diploid" cells?

(2n) cells

70

Most human somatic cells are _________________

DIPLOID CELLS

71

_______________ is the formation of sex cells

MEIOSIS

72

__________ is the formation of 4 sperm cells

SPERMATOGENESIS

73

_________ is the formation of 1 egg cell and 3 polar bodies

OOGENESIS

74

__________ occurs in somatic tissues

MITOSIS

75

Mitosis produces _________ cells

SOMATIC

76

What kind of cells does mitosis produce?

SOMATIC CELLS

77

How many divisions per cycle does Mitosis go through?

ONE

78

Mitosis goes from __________ cells to _____________ cells

DIPLOID
DIPLOID

79

What is the basis for asexual reproduction?

MITOSIS

80

Mitosis is the basis for ________________

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

81

What is the basis for asexual reproduction?

MITOSIS

82

___________ occurs in the reproductive organs

MEIOSIS

83

Meiosis produces ___________

GAMETES

84

How many divisions per cycle does meiosis go through?

TWO

85

Meiosis goes from _____________ cells to ___________ cells

DIPLOID
HAPLOID

86

Meiosis is the basis for _______________ reproduction

SEXUAL

87

What is the basis for sexual reproduction?

MEIOSIS

88

___________ is the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei

FERTILIZATION

89

What is fertilization?

THE FUSION OF THE EGG AND SPERM NUCLEI

90

What does fertilization do?

It re-establishes the Diploid (2n) chromosome number

91

What is the cell formed by fertilization called?

ZYGOTE (fertilized egg)

92

The "book" of protein-building instructions

DNA MOLECULES

93

What do DNA molecules use to "write the book" of protein building instructions?

ADENINE
THYMINE
GUANINE
CYTOSINE

94

What is the process of making RNA from DNA?

TRANSCRIPTION

95

______________ catalyzes the addition of nucleotides to the unwound portion during transcription

RNA POLYMERASE

96

What replaces thymine in RNA?

URACIL

97

What would be the corresponding RNA sequence from this sequence of DNA?

ACCTGAT

UGGACUA

98

During transcription, what is the newly formed strand of RNA called?

MESSENGER RNA or mRNA

99

____________ carries the message of how to make the protein

mRNA

100

_____________ can leave the nucleus through nuclear pores and enter into the cytoplasm where it can then begin building proteins

mRNA

101

_______________ is the process of making a protein from mRNA

TRANSLATION

102

__________ are groups of 3 nucleotides "triplets"

CODONS

103

UGGACUA

UGG CUA

UGG is an example of what?

A CODON

104

What do triplet codons correspond to?
(remember the chart)

SPECIFIC AMINO ACIDS

105

What is it called when some triplet codons code for the same Amino Acid?

"REDUNDANCY"

106

____________ reads the message in groups of three

rRNA

107

In what order does transcription and translation occur?

TRANSCRIPTION 1ST
TRANSLATION 2ND

108

What make proteins?

A STRING OF AMINO ACIDS

109

mRNA becomes attached to the ______________

rRNA

110

What is rRNA?

RIBOSOMAL RNA

111

What goes and gets the amino acid?

tRNA

112

What is tRNA?

TRANSFER RNA

113

rRNA reads the mRNA and directs _____________ to pick up necessary amino acids

tRNA

114

What are amino acids bonded together by?

PEPTIDE BONDS

115

_____________ are modified by rough ER and then sent out or used as required by the cell

PROTEINS