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Year Nine Science > Biology1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology1 Deck (38):
1

What are organisms?

Living things

2

How are animals named?

Using the binomial classification system

3

What are the different stages of classification?

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

4

What are the five kingdoms?

Animals (multicellular animals)
Plants (all green plants)
Fungi
Prokaryotes (e.g. bacteria)
Protocists (e.g. amoeba)

5

What is the binomial system?

It is a universally understood method of naming organisms in Latin. The name is formed of the genus (with capital) and the species (lower)

6

What are vertebrates?

Animals with back bones

7

What groups are vertebrates split into?

Mammal
Bird
Reptile
Fish
Amphibian

8

What are the key features of mammals?

-They have fur/hair
-They are homotherms
-Undergo internal fertilisation
-Give birth to live young (viviparous)
-Have lungs

9

What are the key features of birds?

-Have lungs
-Feathers
-Beaks
-Homotherms
-undergo internal fertilisation
-Lay eggs to reproduce

10

What are the key features of reptiles?

-Have lungs
-Dry scales
-Poikilotherms
-Undergo internal fertilisation
-Lay leathery/soft eggs to reproduce

11

What are the key features of amphibians?

-Usually have lungs
-Can absorb oxygen through skin
-Moist skin
-Poikilotherms
-External fertilisation
-Lay jelly covered eggs
-Live in land and water

12

What are the key features of bony fish?

-Absorb oxygen through gills
-Wet scales
-Poikilotherms
-External fertilisation
-Lay jelly covered eggs
-Live in water

13

What are invertebrates?

Animals without back bones

14

What groups are invertebrates split into?

-Arthropods
-Annelids
-Nematodes
-Molluscs

15

What are the key features of Arthropods?

-Hard exoskeleton
-Segmented body (head, thorax, abdomen)
-Jointed legs
-Include insects(6 legs)
-Include arachnids(8 legs)
-Include crustaceans (10-14 legs)
-Include myriapods (20+ legs)

16

What are annelids?

Segmented worms with soft bodies and no jointed legs. The segments are mostly identical.

17

What are nematodes?

Thin, tiny worms without segments. Some are parasites that cause disease (e.g. hookworms)

18

What are molluscs?

Molluscs have a hard, muscular foot. They may have a shell (e.g. snails, slugs, squids, octopuses, clams)

19

What four major groups are plants divided into?

-Mosses and liverworts (no proper root system)
-Ferns (produce spores (special reproductive cells) and have a proper root system)
-Coniferous trees(have a root system with needle shaped leaves and cones)
-Flowering plants (have a root system and flowers that produce seeds)

20

What are the most dominant plants in many biomes?

Flowering plants

21

What two classes are flowering plants divided into?

Monocotyledons
Dicotyledons

22

What are the key features of monocotyledons?

-Produce one embryonic leaf (part of the seed, “first leaf” of the plant)
-Leaves with parallel veins
-Parts of flower come in threes
-Fibrous roots
-Herbaceous (no woody stem-annuals, biennials and perennials)

23

What are the key features of dicotyledons?

-Seeds contain two embryonic leaves
-Leaves with branching veins
-Parts of flowers come in fours and fives
-Herbaceous or woody (wood as structural tissue)
-Taproot

24

What are the characteristics of all living things?

Movement
Respiration
Sensitivity

Growth
Reproduction
Excretion
Nutrition

25

What is adaption?

The way animals and plants become better at living in their habitat

26

How are polar bears adapted to their environment?

-Thick fur for warmth
-Small ears to reduce heat loss
-White colour to camouflage and protect from sun
-Large surface area on paws to walk on ice
-Padded feet for ice, snow and water
-Black skin to absorb heat
-Fat for insulation(blubber)

27

How are camels adapted to their environment?

-Long eyelashes to keep out sand
-Fur blocks sun and keeps them warm at night
-Hump stores fat which produces metabolic water and keeps heat out of the rest of the body
-Concentrated urine to reduce water loss
-Large hooves so they don’t sink into sand

28

How is the rate of heat loss increased?

The larger the surface area compared to its volume, the faster an object loses heat

29

How are plants in dry climates adapted?

-Large and efficient root system
-No leaves to lose water
-Can survive on little water
-Spikes to protect from predators
-Store water in their stems
-Thick waxy cuticle

30

What are biological indicators of pollution?

Biological indicators of pollution are organisms found in certain levels of pollution e.g. lichen

31

What organisms are usually found in highly polluted water?

-Sludgeworm
-Rat-tailed maggot

32

What organisms are found in moderately polluted water?

-Water louse
-Bloodworms

33

What organisms are found in slightly polluted water?

-Freshwater shrimp
-Caddisfly larva

34

What organisms are found in unpolluted water?

-Mayfly larva
-Stonefly larva

35

What is the independent variable?

The variable changed in the experiment

36

What is the dependent variable?

The variable that is measured

37

What is the male reproductive organ in a plant?

The anther

38

What is the female reproductive organ in a plant?

The stigma