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Flashcards in BiologyC1Swavely Deck (101):
1

Biochemistry

Chemistry dealing with chemical compounds and processes in living plants and animals

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atom

Basic unit of matter

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proton

A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

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electron

A subatomic particle that has a negative charge

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neutron

A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

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compound

A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

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molecule

A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.

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element

A pure substance made of only one kind of atom

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periodic table

A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.

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subatomic particles

Particles inside an atom (protons, neutrons, electrons)

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atomic number

Number of protons in an atom

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atomic mass

The average mass of all the isotopes of an element

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isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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electron shells

An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.

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chemical bond

An attractive force that holds together the atoms, ions, or groups of atoms in a molecule or compound.

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chemical reaction

A process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed. Producing one or more different substances.

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synthesis reaction

A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound

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decomposition reaction

A reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

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single replacement reaction

A chemical reaction that occurs when the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

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activation energy

The amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur.

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substrate

A specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme

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product

A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

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law of conservation of matter

Matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions

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cell

Basic unit of life

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ionic bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another, A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.

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covalent bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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hydrogen bond

A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.

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anion

A negatively charged ion

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cation

A positively charged ion

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chemical formula

A combination of symbols that represents the elements in a compound.

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structural formula

A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds.

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cohesion

Attraction between molecules of the same substance

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isomer

Compounds with the same formula but different structures.

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glucose

C6H12O6

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hydronium ion

H3O+

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hydrogen ion

H+

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hydroxide ion

OH-

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pH scale

Measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14

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base

A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.

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acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

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neutral

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solvent

A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

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solute

A substance that is dissolved in a solution.

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solution

A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.

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organic

Contain carbon and hydrogen, and formed by living things or once living things

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inorganic

Not formed from living things or the remains of living things

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monomer

A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

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polymer

A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.

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macromolecule

Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

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carbon skeleton

The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule

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monosaccharide

A single sugar molecule such as glucose, fructose, or galactose; the simplest type of sugar.

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disaccharide

A molecule composed of two monosaccharides. Common disaccharides include maltose, sucrose, and lactose.

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polysaccharide

A molecule formed by joining many monosaccharides together. Typically energy-storage molecules (glycogen in animals, starch in plants) or structural molecules (cellulose in plants, chitin in exoskeletons).

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pentose

5 carbon sugar

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hexose

6 carbon sugar

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lipid

Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

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hydrophobic

Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.

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glycerol

Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.

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fatty acid

A long carbon skeleton, with usually 16-18 carbons, at the end has a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon

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nonpolar

a molecule in which all atoms have the same electronegativity and the electron distribution is equal

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saturated

Fats with the maximum number of hydrogens.

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hydrogenated

a process by which hydrogens are added to unsaturated fats, increasing the degree of saturation and turning liquid oils into solid fats

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unsaturated

Fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains

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phospholipid

A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.

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cholesterol

A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.

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protein

An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

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amino acid

Building blocks of protein

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enzyme

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

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R group

a functional group that defines a particular amino acid and gives it special properties.

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amino group

A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.

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acid group

contains carbon double bonded to an oxygen, single bonded to another oxygen, and has a negative charge

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carboxyl group

-COOH

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primary structure

The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.

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secondary structure

The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between amino acids.

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tertiary structure

3D shape of single polypeptide using hydrogen, hydrophobic forces, ionic, covalent, disulfide bonding

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hydrophobicity

the tendency for nonpolar amino acids to avoid water

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quaternary

The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.

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denaturation

A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature. Also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors.

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nucleic acid

Any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells

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nucleotide

A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

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DNA

A long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; deoxyribonucleic acid

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RNA

A long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; ribonucleic acid

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purine

Adenine and Guanine that consist of two organic nitrogen ring structures

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pyrimidine

A class of nucleotides that includes cytosine, thymine, and uracil, 1 nitrogen ring

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phosphate group

A functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms

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double helix

The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.

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James Watson

1953. Built first accepted DNA model explaining specific structure and properties of DNA.

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Francis Crick

English biochemist who (with Watson in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1916)

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Rosalind Franklin

British scientist; use X-ray diffraction on a DNA molecule; research wasn't clear; she was not credited with the discovering of the double helix

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Maurice Wilkins

Worked to make an X-ray crystallography of DNA and found it to be a double helix of uniform diameter (~ 2nm) with Rosalind Franklin

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adenine

The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA

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thymine

A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA. Pairs with Adenine.

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guanine

A nitrogen-containing organic base found in nucleic acids. It pairs with cytosine.

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cytosine

A nucleotide that binds with guanine; a pyrimidine

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uracil

a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine

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antiparallel

The opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA double helix.

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tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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mRNA

A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein

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rRNA

A globular RNA that is combined with special protein that makes up a ribosome

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gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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codon

A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid