Biomachanics Outcome 1b Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biomachanics Outcome 1b Deck (34):
1

Stability

Resistance to the disruption of equilibrium

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Factors affecting stability

-Base of support
-friction
-line of gravity
-centre of gravity
-body mass

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Base of support

-Area of body that is in contact with the supporting surface

-increase base of support = increase stability

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Line of gravity

Directing which gravity acts on the body

Closer to centre of base of support the line of gravity is the greater that stability

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Centre of gravity

Point where weight is balanced regardless of the position of the body

Lower the centre of gravity the higher the stability

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Friction

The higher the friction between the body and the supporting surface the greater the stability

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Body mass

Greater body mass= greater stability

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Impulse

The change in momentum in an object

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How to increase force with impulse

-Increase amount of time force is active on object
-high force for short contact period

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How to decrease force with impulse

Increase amount of time on contact with object

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Summation of motion

-use more body parts to perform action
-use stronger muscle groups then smaller/faster muscle groups
-coordinate the sequence of body parts
-create stable base of support for movement to occur around

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Moment of inertia

A body’s tendency to resist change in angular motion

-high moment of inertia = low angular velocity
-low moment of inertia = high angular velocity

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Angular velocity

-measurement of how quickly the object has moved from its starting point to finish point and in what direction

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Angular momentum

-The amount of motion possessed by a body
-product of moment of inertia and angular velocity

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Height of release

-Difference between height of release and land height

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Angle of release

-furtherest distance = 45degrees
-furthers height= 180 degrees
- landing position higher than launch position = release over 45 degrees
- landing position lower than launch position = release under 45 degrees

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Gravity

-force that brings projectiles towards the earth
-results is parabolic flight path

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Air resistance

-opposes the direction of the motion of the object, slowing it down.

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How to decrease air resistance

-decrease surface area through body position

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Factors affecting friction of an object in motion

-increase amount of in perfections on the contacting surface

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Types of motion

General motion
Linear motion
Angular motion
Projectile motion

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Newton’s first law

A body will remain at rest unless acted upon by an external force

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Newton’s second law

Force applied to an object will change motion directly proportional to the size of the force applied

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Newton’s third law

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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Torque

A rotational force that makes an object rotate

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Moment of inertia

-A body’s resistance to change in angular motion
- longer the object the higher the moment of inertia
-moi high = low angular velocity
-low moi= high angular velocity

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First class lever

Resistance - axis - force

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Benefit of first class lever

-longer force arm = less force required to move resistance
- longer resistance arm = increased speed and range of motion

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Second class lever

Axis-resistance-force

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Benefit of second class lever

-Always requires less force to move resistance
-(MA >1)
- wheelbarrow , push-up

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Third class lever

Axis-force-resistance

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Benefit of third class lever

-increased range of motion and speed

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Distance

Measures the path traveled from start to finish

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Displacement

Measurement in change of position from start to finish