Biopsychosocial Approach to Illness, Individual Human Person (trans 2) Flashcards Preview

Psychiatry 1st LE > Biopsychosocial Approach to Illness, Individual Human Person (trans 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychosocial Approach to Illness, Individual Human Person (trans 2) Deck (18):
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Introduced by Dr. Jaime C. Zaguirre

INDIVIDUAL HUMAN PERSON
**basic unit of human society

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Individual
o Signifies an individual entity with his own particular characteristic attributes different from any other.
o Refers to the uniqueness of a person

Person
o Implies a human being in the drama of life, thriving in a social milieu

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3 Components of the IHP

1. Physical (Soma)
2. Mental (Psyche)
3. Spiritual (Spirit)
**These three components cannot be separated from each other

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All internal and external agents and incidences in a person’s milieu

Environment
**Predisposing factors
**Precipitating factors

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Predisposing factors
- “Conditioning factors”
- Agents or incidents in environment which render the IHP susceptible to breaking down upon being subjected to one or more precipitating factors
- Nature and Nurture

Precipitating factors
- “triggering factors”

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a configuration, pattern or organized field having specific properties that cannot be derived from the summation of its component parts; a unified whole

Gestalt
**Every human behavior is a gestalt
**The whole gestalt behavior is not only aggregate, nor simple summation of these parts, but formation of an integrated whole

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A general characteristic personal way of life peculiar to every IHP in his uniqueness as a human existence

Lifestyle
**A life-long gestalt formation of his habits molded by his past and present experiences

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Gestalt Synthesis - If any subsidiary change in behavior or life style occurs, then there is a corresponding change of the soma, psyche and spirit
**Somatic - psychological expression of the body image
**Psychic - symbolic language of the Ego Image
**Spiritual - intellectual processes based on subjective experience and the meaning and value of his Self Image

E.g.:
Change in soma – Recent MI
Change in psyche – Feeling of sadness
Change in spirit – Interpreting the meaning- “I must be getting old”

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Believed that clinicians must attend simultaneously to the biological, psychological, and social dimensions of illness.

George Engel (BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL)

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Characteristics of the Biomedical Model

1. Dualism
2. Reductionism
3.. Detached Observer

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Dualism
- Separation of body and mind

**Physicians maintain a strict separation between the body-as-machine and the narrative biography and emotions of the person without building bridges between the two realms
**Even if patients are sick, physicians should not be affected by their emotions

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Reductionism
- According to this principle, anything that cannot be objectively verified and explained at the level of cellular and molecular processes was ignored or devalued.

**White collar hypertension” refers to the phenomena where a patient’s blood pressure increases upon seeing a person in only white. This is a response to the sight of a doctor and the news that the patient is about to receive.

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Detached Observer

The physician does not involve himself in the patient’s life or support system. He is only meant to observe and provide options for treatment

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Emphasized the importance of understanding human health and illness in their fullest context

Biopsychosocial Approach to Illness

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REMEMBER
The doctor-patient relationship is a critical component of the BPS model

**An interaction of two human beings dealing intimately with one another over issues involving health, illness, and sometimes death

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The patient-doctor relationship

**The essence: Ability to integrate excellent medical treatment with compassionate care of the patient
Humane medicine: Treating emotional distress in patients as well as their physical illness

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Stages of illness behaviour

o Symptom experience – The patient getting sick, such as having fever, nausea, or vomiting.
o Assumption for the sick role - No longer denies that he is sick, but still decides whether or not he should go to the doctor.
o Medical care contact – Where the patient-doctor relationship comes in. Also involves how the patient is treated.
o Dependent patient role – The patient follows and agrees with what the doctor is saying
o Recovery or rehabilitation

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Transference: The patient may have an image of the physician, relating him to someone

Counter-transference: Redirection of a physician’s feelings towards a client