Flashcards in Biostats, Behavioral & MJP Deck (46)
What are the chances I really do NOT have cancer?
NPV - free of disease with a (-) test result
High pre-test probability --> low NPV/likely to have disease
What are the chances that I DO have cancer?
- proportion of (+) results that are true (+)
Appearance of new cases
Those without the disease at a certain time
Incidence x time
Inc prevalence but stable incidence
Something that prolongs the disease = improved quality of care
Prior knowledge of exposure status is what type of bias?
Longer survival in patients who underwent screening that allowed for earlier diagnosis is what type of bias?
Subjects selected for a study or selected from a group of w/ losses during follow-up is what type of bias?
120 out of 400 taking an ACE developed an MI while 100 out of 300 not taking a ACE experienced an MI - what is the relative risk of MI taking and ACE-I?
RR = 120/400 / (100/300)
Incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed
What type of study selects patients with a disease and without and then determines their previous exposure status?
What type of study tracks pts with a known condition to document hx or response to tx?
What type of study simultaneously measures exposure & outcome using surveys?
Smaller #s predominate - tail in + direction
Mean > median
Large #s predominate - tail extends in - direction
Mean < median
Babies delivered with neural tube defects and healthy babies - moms asked about medicine use. Type of study?
Odds ratio = odds of exposure w/ disease odds of exposure w/o disease
A risk factor leads to extensive dx testing and increases the probability the disease has been identified (smoking) is what type of bias?
- falling --> spread arms --> clasp
- stroke cheek --> suckling
- suckling reflex 0-2mo becomes voluntary
No direct evidence of negligence - accidents must be of a kind which ordinarily does not occur in the absence of negligence = leaving a scalpel in pt
Res ipsa loquitur - "the thing speaks for itself"
# needed to harm
1 / risk
- compares the old way or ineffectiveness of tx
Treating a pt - ignoring his.her wishes but aims to promote person's best interests
Pt incapacitated and Dr. makes decision based on what they think pt wants
Erro occurs when study accepts alternative hypothesis when in fact there is no difference
Erro occurs when the study fails to reject the null hypothesis when there IS in fact a difference
Elements of informed consent
risks and benefits
alternatives and their risks and benefits
assessment of pt understanding
acceptance of intervention
Dysthmic vs. MDD
Dysthmic = chronic, 2+ yrs and less severe
MDD = 5 or more SIGECAPS
Self-isolation, detachment, no affect
+2 = 2SD above the mean
T-score used now where #s are estimates rather than actual population parameters
15mo old suddenly stops talking, special interest in toys, very hard to disrupt, very upset when you move her toys, hand wringing, toe walking
Paid a contracted rate for each person
Age of social smile, follow/swipe object, lift head and shoulder
Age able to roll, transfer objects, sleep all night, respond to "no", babbles
Age of crawling, sitting, pincer grasp, first words
ADHD, OCD, learning disorders, conduct disorder
Tx = haloperidol or fluphenazine
Moodiness, worthlessness, splitting
Excessive emotions, attention-seeking, seductiveness
Phases of drug trials
1 - healthy volunteers
2 - small # of disease sufferers = effectiveness
3 - large double-blind
4 - following release
Relative risk ratio
risk of exposed group / risk of unexposed group
Say different words but not yet sentences
Run, stand on tip toes, stair w/ support, kick a ball, build a tower, 2-4 word sentences
Bias commonly found in smoking, alcohol or exercise surveys
Social desirability bias
More attention is paid to treatment group than placebo to ensure compliance
Age kids are able to stand on 1 foot, stairs W/O support, tell stories, colors, fantasy play