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Flashcards in Biostats, Behavioral & MJP Deck (46)
1

What are the chances I really do NOT have cancer?

NPV - free of disease with a (-) test result

High pre-test probability --> low NPV/likely to have disease

2

What are the chances that I DO have cancer?

PPV
- proportion of (+) results that are true (+)

3

Appearance of new cases

Incidence

4

Those without the disease at a certain time

Prevalence

Incidence x time

5

Inc prevalence but stable incidence

Something that prolongs the disease = improved quality of care

6

Prior knowledge of exposure status is what type of bias?

Observer

7

Longer survival in patients who underwent screening that allowed for earlier diagnosis is what type of bias?

Lead-time

8

Subjects selected for a study or selected from a group of w/ losses during follow-up is what type of bias?

Selection bias

9

120 out of 400 taking an ACE developed an MI while 100 out of 300 not taking a ACE experienced an MI - what is the relative risk of MI taking and ACE-I?

RR = 120/400 / (100/300)

Incidence in exposed / incidence in unexposed

10

Odd ratio

ad/bc

11

What type of study selects patients with a disease and without and then determines their previous exposure status?

Case-control

12

What type of study tracks pts with a known condition to document hx or response to tx?

Case Series

13

What type of study simultaneously measures exposure & outcome using surveys?

Cross-sectional (prevalence)

14

Positive skew

Smaller #s predominate - tail in + direction
Mean > median

15

Negative skew

Large #s predominate - tail extends in - direction
Mean < median

16

Babies delivered with neural tube defects and healthy babies - moms asked about medicine use. Type of study?

Case-Control

Odds ratio = odds of exposure w/ disease odds of exposure w/o disease

17

A risk factor leads to extensive dx testing and increases the probability the disease has been identified (smoking) is what type of bias?

Detection bias

18

Moro reflex

0-5mo
- falling --> spread arms --> clasp

19

Rooting reflex

0-4mo
- stroke cheek --> suckling
- suckling reflex 0-2mo becomes voluntary

20

No direct evidence of negligence - accidents must be of a kind which ordinarily does not occur in the absence of negligence = leaving a scalpel in pt

Res ipsa loquitur - "the thing speaks for itself"

21

# needed to harm

1 / risk
- compares the old way or ineffectiveness of tx

22

Treating a pt - ignoring his.her wishes but aims to promote person's best interests

Paternalism

23

Pt incapacitated and Dr. makes decision based on what they think pt wants

Beneficence

24

Erro occurs when study accepts alternative hypothesis when in fact there is no difference

Type I

25

Erro occurs when the study fails to reject the null hypothesis when there IS in fact a difference

Type II

26

Elements of informed consent

Dx, intervention
risks and benefits
alternatives and their risks and benefits
assessment of pt understanding
acceptance of intervention

27

Dysthmic vs. MDD

Dysthmic = chronic, 2+ yrs and less severe
MDD = 5 or more SIGECAPS

28

Self-isolation, detachment, no affect

Schizoid

29

Z-score

+2 = 2SD above the mean

T-score used now where #s are estimates rather than actual population parameters

30

15mo old suddenly stops talking, special interest in toys, very hard to disrupt, very upset when you move her toys, hand wringing, toe walking

Rhett syndrome

31

Prospective study

Cohort

32

Paid a contracted rate for each person

Capitation

33

Age of social smile, follow/swipe object, lift head and shoulder

3mo

34

Age able to roll, transfer objects, sleep all night, respond to "no", babbles

7mo

35

Age of crawling, sitting, pincer grasp, first words

8-10mo

36

Tourette's co-mordidities

ADHD, OCD, learning disorders, conduct disorder
Tx = haloperidol or fluphenazine

37

Moodiness, worthlessness, splitting

Borderline personality

38

Excessive emotions, attention-seeking, seductiveness

Histrionic

39

Phases of drug trials

1 - healthy volunteers
2 - small # of disease sufferers = effectiveness
3 - large double-blind
4 - following release

40

Relative risk ratio

risk of exposed group / risk of unexposed group

41

Say different words but not yet sentences

18mo

42

Run, stand on tip toes, stair w/ support, kick a ball, build a tower, 2-4 word sentences

24mo

43

Bias commonly found in smoking, alcohol or exercise surveys

Social desirability bias

44

More attention is paid to treatment group than placebo to ensure compliance

Procedure bias

45

Age kids are able to stand on 1 foot, stairs W/O support, tell stories, colors, fantasy play

3-4yrs

46

Dressing w/o assistance, triangle, 1 foot >10sec

4-5yrs