BiSci #3 (Exam 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BiSci #3 (Exam 2) Deck (30):
1

microbes

are microscopic organisms and particles that include: bacteria, viruses, prions, and other organisms such as fungi, multicellular papa sites, and single-celled protistans.

2

bacteria

single celled, prokaryotic organisms is known as

3

virus

-small, non living obligate parasites
-reproduce inside a host cell
-acellular (not composed of cells)
-outer protein coat called a capsid and nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) inside
-some have an envelope
-specific to which cell type they will attach to and enter

4

prion

-infectious protein particles
-cause degenerate disease of the nervous system
-normal proteins change their shape

5

lymphatic system*

-lymphatic capillaries absorb excess tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream
-lymphatic capillaries in the small intestine, absorb fats associated with proteins
-helps defend against pathogens
-works in the production maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes in the body

6

lymph

one way valve that carries fluid

7

lymphatic vessels

-made of capillaries, vessels, and ducts
-function to return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
-veins (both carry fluid)

8

primary lymphatic organs*

-red bone marrow
-thymus

9

secondary lymphatic organs*

-lymph nodes
-spleen

10

first line of defense

barriers to entry: physical and chemical

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second line of defense

-phagocytic WBC
-inflammatory response
-protective proteins: compliment and interferons

12

third line of defense

-helps protect us against specific pathogens when nonspecific defenses fail
-helps protect us against cancer
-depends on the action of B and T cells

13

B cells

produce plasma cells and memory cells
-plasma cells produce specific antibodies
-memory cells are ready to produce antibodies in the future

14

T cells

regulate immune response; produce various types
-cytotoxic cells kill virus infected and cancer cells
-helper cells regulate immunity
-memory cells are ready to kill in the future

15

Y shaped protein

the basic unit that composes antibody molecules is what shape

16

the trunk of the Y

is a constant region that determines the class of the antibody

17

the arms of the Y

are the variable regions where specific antigens bind

18

helper T cells*

secrete cytokines that help many immune cells function

19

cytotoxic T cells

have vacuoles containing granzymes and perforins (perforins punch holes in the target cells, followed by granzymes that cause the cell to undergo apoptosis)

20

active immunity

-the individual`s body makes antibodies against a particular antigen
-usually long lasting

21

passive immunity

-an individual is given antibodies against a particular antigen (short-lived)

22

immune system can harm the body

1. allergies
2. tissue rejection
3. immune system disorders

23

autoimmune disease

cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack the body`s own cells as if they were foreign
(multiple sclerosis, lupus, myasthenia gravis, and rheumatoid arthritis)

24

immunodeficiency disease

the immune system is compromised and thus unable to defend the body against disease
(AIDS and SCID)

25

lymphatic vessels*

back up into heart, which is squeezed in by the skeletal muscles

26

lymphatic organs*

skeletal system, produces bone marrow

27

active, must work to fight off*

chicken pox (naturally or vaccinated) is active or passive?

28

passive b/c given those markers*

antibodies are active or passive?

29

nervous system (eats neurons)*

prions attack where? causes shaking

30

themis*

T cells mature here
-adults shrink here
-T cell is form of WBC
-made in bone marrow