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Flashcards in Bittel and Ferguson Deck (59)
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1

Is DNA parallel or antiparallel

antiparallel

2

How often is there a turn in DNA

one turn every 10 bp

3

What digest linker DNA?

nuclease

4

What is a nucleosome core particle made up of?

8 histone proteins
-2 molecules each of H2A, H2B, H3, H4
-2x standee DNa that is 147 nucleotide pairs long

5

What are the universal features of cells on earth?

-all cells store their heredity info in the same linear chemical code: DNA
- all cells replicate their hereditary information by templated polymerization
- all cells translate RNA into protein in the same way
- each protein is encoded by a specific gene
- all cells function as biochemical factories dealing with the same basic molecular building blocks
- all cells are enclosed in a plasma membrane across which nutrients and waste materials pass
-life requires free energy

6

What does acetylation do for genes? methylation?

acetylation: activating
methylation: inhibiting

7

What is an Okazaki fragment?

chunk of DNA on lagging strand

8

look at DNA repair pathways

slide 12-13

9

What is homologous recombination

crossing over and gene conversion occurring in same chromosome, multiple opportunities for genetic reassortment

10

What is a DNA only transposon?

short invited repeats at each end

11

What enzyme is required for movement in DNA only transposon?

transposes

12

what is the mode of movement for DNA only transposon?

moves as DNA, either by cut and paste or replicative pathways

13

describe retroviral like retrotransposons

directly related long terminal repeats at each end

14

retroviral like retrotransposons enzyme

reverse transcriptase and integrase

15

retroviral like retrotransposons move of movement

moves via an RNA intermediate whose production is driven by a promoter in the LTR

16

describe nonretroviral retrotransposons

poly A at 3' end of RNA transcript, 5' end often truncates

17

nonretroviral retrotransposons enzyme

reverse transcriptase and endonuclease

18

nonretroviral retrotransposons move of movement

moves via an RNA intermediate that is often synthesized form a neighboring promotor

19

____ in somatic cells direct differentiation into Sertoli cells instead of follicle cells

Sry

20

What do Sertoli cells do?

secrete anti-mullerian hormone to suppress female development, causing mullerian duct to regress

21

What do leydig cells do?

secrete testosterone

22

In the absence of sry, what occurs?

genital ridge becomes ovary
PGC becomes egg
somatic cells differentiate into follicle cells (support cells) and theca cells (estrogen producing cells)

23

are gametes haploid or diploid?

haploid

24

What do capacitated sperm use to penetrate granulose cells?

hyaluronidase

25

What does the zona pellucida act as?

species barrier

26

The zona pellucida induces sperm to undergo ______ reaction, which does what?

acrosome, contents help sperm to tunnel through the zona pellucid and alters sperm so it can bind and fuse with plasma membrane of egg

27

what do membrane proteins ZP1, 2 and 3 do in binding of the sperm to the egg

ZP 2 and 3 form long filaments
ZP1 cross link the filaments

28

What is the central dogma of biology

DNA is transcribed to messenger RNAs which act as templates for protein synthesis in translation

29

What are the three phases of translation?

initiation
elongation
termination

30

describe initiation

ribosome assembles around the target mRNA. The first tRNA is attached at the start codon