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A2 Literature > Blake Critics & Context > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blake Critics & Context Deck (54):
1

Zachary Leader quote

'Distanced and calculation, much too knowing to be calculated'

2

Critic for London

Timothy Vines

3

Timothy Vines quote

London charges Parliament with perpetuating the wretchedness of the human condition

4

What did Thomas Paine say about London?

A market where every man knows his place, and corruption is common traffic

5

How many prostitutes worked in London?

50,000

6

What percentage of prostitutes is estimated to have had syphilis?

40%

7

Even who were treated for venereal disease?

Children

8

What was published in London every year

The List of Covent Garden Ladies

9

What paid for poor relief?

Local taxes

10

Who paid taxes to help the poor?

Local parishioners

11

How many paupers were in workhouses in 1777?

90,000

12

Why was vagabond a derogatory term?

Parishioners did not want to pay for people passing through

13

When did the gin craze take place?

The first half of the 18th century

14

What did the Middlesex magistrates say about the epidemic of drunkenness?

They noted that gin was popular among 'the inferior set of people'

15

Context for Holy Thursday (innocence)

Holy Thursday, or ascension day

16

What took place on ascension day?

The poor children from charity schools went to St. Paul's cathedral to sing the praises of their benefactors.

17

Charity schools...?!?!?

Established by wealthy benefactors; there was no national system of education before the 19th century. Some members of the wealthy classes feared that educating the poor would upset the social order.

18

Holy Thursday (Experience)

Pastoral poetry

19

What is pastoral poetry?

Pastoral poetry deals with rural life, typically drawing a contrast between the innocence of the countryside and the misery of city life. Often in elegiac form, lamenting the loss of a golden age.

20

What is anti-pastoral?!?

Anti-pastoral works criticise the artificiality of the pastoral tradition, because it obscures the hardships faced by those in rural areas.

21

Context for nurse's songs

Children's verse

22

What kind of children's verse was in fashion during the 18th century

Improving and moralistic, with a simple form.

23

Who wrote 'a token for children'?

James janeway

24

What is covered in Janeway's verse?

The deaths of young children, give in accounts of their sins, which included disobedience and boisterousness

25

Who argued that Blake satirises children's verse?

John Holloway

26

Why did Blake reject conventional religion?

Blake saw Christianity of his day as distorting true spiritual life, changing religion into a system of moral laws which bound people in shame and fear of punishment.

27

What did Blake, as a dissenter, reject?

The notion of a transcendent, external God

28

How did Blake believe the traditional image of God was formed?

Made when people 'fell' into divided selfhood, interpreting the world solely through the point of experience.

29

According to Blake, what was the Fall?

Not a fall into sin, but a fall into a distorted way of seeing God as vengeful and punitive.

30

Chimney sweeper context

...chimney sweeping.

31

Which act regarding child labour was passed in the late 1700s?

Britain's act for the better regulation of chimney sweeper's and their apprentices

32

When were criminal charges finally pressed for exploration of children?

1875, 30 years after blake's death

33

How many slaves were exported from Africa each year by the 1780s?

88,000

34

What was formed in 1787? (Slave trade)

The committee for the abolition of the slave trade, by evangelicals and Quakers

35

Infant sorrow context

Swaddling bands

36

When were concerns raised about the safety of swaddling bands?

The 18th century

37

What did Rousseau have to say about swaddling bands?

The child has barely left the mothers womb, it has hardly begun to move ... When it is given new bonds

38

The schoolboy - context

Education - Locke, Wesley, and Rousseau

39

What was Rousseau's view of education?

Children innocentShould be educated in the countrysideEducation about teaching children to be their own master 'See to it that they do not die without tasting life'

40

What did Locke believe about education?

Infants mind a tabula rasaCarefully monitored by tutorReasoning and logic

41

What did Wesley believe about education?

Children born sinful. Education = repairing humanity's from grace

42

Context for Rose/lily/garden of love/ rose tree

Free love, marriage

43

What did the free love movement support?

Sexual matters separated from state. Marriage legal prostitution. Women's rights.

44

Which proponent of the free love movement was Blake friends with?

Mary Wollstonecraft

45

When were the songs of experience published?

1794 - the year the reign of terror began

46

When was London published?

1792

47

When were the songs of innocence published?

1789

48

What did Blake do to show his support for the revolution?

At the beginning, he wore the red bonnet of Liberty to show his commitment to the ideals of Liberty, equality, and brotherhood

49

What did Blake participate in?

Radical clubs that sprang up in Britain; became acquainted with Thomas Paine

50

List the 3 key facts about Dissenters

They disagreed with the hierarchy of archbishops, bishops, and priestsBelieved church for a place for unmediated relationship with GodDissenters marginalised by society

51

Blake's understanding of heaven and hell

Angels represent the conservative voice of tradition, while Devils represent rebellion and progress. Humans should not seek forgiveness to change the world, but rather should attempt to reawaken the creative powers of the divine.

52

Critic for Pastoral figure

Jennifer Davis-Michaels: Blake is deliberately rejecting a celebration of the landscapes appearance, because that appearance falsifies the suffering within it

53

Critic for Nurse's Song

Susan Fox - the nurse is protecting the children from 'darkness and grief'

54

Critic for Little Vagabond

Zachary Leader