BLOA - Examine an interaction between cognition and physiology with 2 relevant studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BLOA - Examine an interaction between cognition and physiology with 2 relevant studies Deck (12):
1

anterograde amnesia

- cause: inability to pass info from STM to LTM
- effect: inability to create new LTM memories

notable sufferers: Clive Wearing, Henry Molaison

2

Who was Clive Wearing?

- a musician that contracted encephalitis (viral infection)
- this left him with serious brain damage to the hippocampus, causing memory impairment

He suffers from:
- anterograde amnesia: impairment in ability to remember after a particular incident
- retrograde amnesia: impairment in ability to remember before a particular incident

Main study: Sacks (2007)

3

Sacks (2007) - Aim

To demonstrate memory processes between STM and LTM

4

Sacks (2007) - Findings

- he couldn't transfer episodic memory from STS to LTS
- thus his memory lasts 7-30 seconds and he cannot form new memories
- he constantly feels like he has just woken up from years of unconsciousness
- however, Wearing could learn new skills and retained his musical ability and could talk, read, write, and sight-read music scores (procedural memory)
- his personality remained unchanged
- furthermore, Wearing's wife noted that Wearing had developed a sense of his own condition and over time had changed from a state of perpetual confusion to being calmer and happier

5

Sacks (2007) - Conclusion

- STM and LTM are separate memory stores
- memories stored in LTM have a limited duration

6

Sacks (2007) - Evaluation

- realistic case study with in-depth info
- but the brain infection was too widespread
for researchers to accurately locate the exact areas of the brain that might be responsible for certain aspects of memory

7

Who was Henry Molaison?

- suffered epileptic fits from 16
- had surgery to remove parts of his brain (including hippocampus) at 27
- surgery cured epilepsy but caused complications (i.e. severe anterograde amnesia)
- like Clive Wearing, he constantly feels like he has just woken up from years of unconsciousness

Main study: Scoville and Milner (1957)

8

Scoville and Milner (1957) - findings

- unable to remember any new events
- HM retained and could learn new motor skills (procedural memory)
- performed normally in intelligence tests

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Scoville and Milner (1957) - conclusion

- completely forgets episodic memory due to it not being transferred from STM to LTM
- but can retain procedural memory
- and his intelligence was unaffected
- provides evidence for localization of function

10

Scoville and Milner (1957) - evaluation

- at first HM's surgery was thought to give a good understanding of how particular areas of the brain are linked to cognitive processes
- but from the Corkin (1997) MRI, the brain damage was worse than previously thought (a significant portion of both temporal lobes were removed)
- thus it was not possible to identify one particular region responsible for Molaison’s memory problems

11

evaluation of case studies

- intensive investigation into a subject
- produces rich, detailed results
- but since it's for very specific circumstances, it can't be generalized to the entire population

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what to write when asked "Examine an interaction between cognition and physiology and evaluate 2 relevant studies"

- main idea: memory (anterograde amnesia) as cognitive factor, hippocampus as physiological factor
- outline the effect of anterograde amnesia on memory
- outline the function of hippocampus
- explain what those two have to do with each other
- judge their relative importance in influencing human behaviour
- Clive Wearing (Sacks, 2007): hippocampus damaged by the viral infection encephalitis
- Henry Molaison (Scoville and Milner, 1957): hippocampus removed to alleviate his epilepsy
- evaluate strengths and limitations of case studies
- judge validity, reliability, and general applicability of case studies
- assess any ethical considerations taken

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