Flashcards in Block 1 Objectives Deck (74):
These are ______ factors:
Genetic, Congenital, immunological, psychological
These are _____ factors:
Biological agents, chemical, agents, physical agents, nutritional imbalances
Rapid onset and short duration disease. What Ig present?
Disease lasting for a long duration - 3months
What Ig present?
What are the leading causes of death in Americans?
type 2 diabetes
Study of the status of something at a snapshot - you just get prevalence
Cross - sectional
Study that looks for prior exposure or risk factor - this one starts with the DISEASE
This study looks to see if EXPOSURE affects likelihood of disease
Positive predictive value
Negative predictive value
Which is most impacted by disease prevalence?
Positive predictive value
Percent of normal population that is 1 SD?
Percent of population that fall in 2 SD?
Why does the occasional person fall out of the SD range?
Age, gender, geographical location
Ex. Higher HGB in Colorado b/c of elevation and less oxygen
What is fasting blood glucose level to diagnose diabetes?
Great than 126
What is the HbA1c used to diagnose diabetes?
6.5% or higher
This is preferred b/c it gives you a 2 month window of what blood sugar is
What is the most specific liver injury test?
What are the liver damage tests?
ALT, AST, and ALP
What are the liver function tests? (Aka failure)
Which organ is tested with CMP but not BMP?
What cardiac enzyme is most specific indicator of myocardial infarction?
CK-MB is the isozyme for the heart
Myoglobin is the earliest level to rise with MI
What should the total cholesterol level be?
Less than 200
240 is very bad news - get drugs
What is HDL-C and the level?
Good cholesterol - transports away from vessels
40 or higher
What is LDL-C and what level?
Bad cholesterol - transports to vessel walls
Less than 100
What are the 2 most common lab tests to monitor inflammation?
ESR and CRP
High ESR suggests more inflammation, infection, etc.
What are the vit. K dependent coagulation factors?
2, 7, 9, 10
What is the coag factor inhibited by warfarin/Coumadin. What test monitors it?
7 - PT/INR
What coag factor inhibited by heparin? What test?
10 - PTT
Indicates bacterial infection?
Indicates viral infection?
Indicates allergies or worms?
What are the HGB and HCT levels needed to diagnose anemia?
Must both be low!
Less than 12 in women
Less than 13.5 in men
What is used to determine the TYPE of anemia?
MCV - this tells average RBC size
MCV less than 80
Tiny RBCs but normal to high in count
MCV greater than 110
Vit. B12 deficiency
Folic acid deficiency
Large RBCs but very low count
What is the most common cause of anemia worldwide and its impact on RBC size?
What is the most common screening test for syphilis? What tests follow it?
Then FTA-ABS or MHA-TP to confirm
What test for UTI and what may show up in urine?
May have blood, nitrite, or protein
What will show up in urine with uncontrolled diabetes?
What will show up in urine for a low carb diet?
Which scan is least valuable for visualizing soft tissues?
Why is a coag test, like PT/INR used to evaluate liver function?
If the liver is failing you won't produce sufficient proteins for coagulation and you'll bleed out
What is the threshold for high fever?
103 or above
Or 99 and above in infants
What are 2 proinflammatory cytokines involved in fever?
IL-1 and TNFa
3 criteria to define fever of unknown origin?
Illness at least 3 weeks
Temp of 101 or higher on several occasions
Failure to diagnose after 3 hospital visits or 3 days in hospital
What are the top 3 causes of FUO?
What are headache warning signs that always point to a serious condition?
New onset seizure
Who gets migraines and how do they present?
Throbbing or pulsing pain - usually unilateral
Lasts 4-72 hours
Who gets cluster headaches and how do they present?
Middle aged men
Unilateral orbital or temporal - WAKES people up
Usually red eyes or nasal stuffiness
May cause ipsilateral Horner's
Abnormal pupil size between eyes
Who gets tension headaches and how do they present?
All ages and genders
Late in the day on weekdays
Band like distribution
May be worse with stress
Why must GCA be treated with steroids right away?
At risk for ischemic optic neuropathy
It is a medical emergency
Usually with jaw claudication b/c it is receiving less blood
What is the key to multiple diabetes related complications?
When glucose oxidizes it produces free radicals that cause damage to nucleic acid
What is atrophy?
Shrinking of size of the cell
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in the size of cells - not number of cells
What is hyperplasia?
Increase in the number of cells
What is metaplasia?
One mature cell type is replaced by another mature cell type
What is dysplasia?
Abnormal cell growth of a tissue that results in varying size, shape, and organization
What type of cells are a strong precursor of cancer?
What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis?
High bilirubin levels
What is Wilson's disease?
From damage to liver - copper binding protein is not produced so there are copper rings around limbus in eye
What is the earliest sign of Wilson's disease?
What is the significance of liver failure on protein production?
When liver fails protein production stops
What is necrosis?
Bursting of cells - huge inflammatory response
What is apoptosis?
Programmed cell death
No inflammatory response
In exudates what is the protein concentration?
Very high - cloudy b/c lots of precipitate
What is protein concentration of transudate?
Proteins are very low - clear in test tube
What type of cells are in acute inflammation?
What type of cells are in chronic inflammation?
Lymphocytes and macrophages
What is a key sign of chronic inflammation?
What are granulomas made of?
Dead material and active macrophages at core
Rim of lymphocytes around the core
What is Pangeria?
Aka werner's syndrome