Block 1 Objectives Flashcards Preview

Fall17-Pathology > Block 1 Objectives > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 1 Objectives Deck (74):
1

These are ______ factors:
Genetic, Congenital, immunological, psychological

Intrinsic

2

These are _____ factors:
Biological agents, chemical, agents, physical agents, nutritional imbalances

Extrinsic

3

Rapid onset and short duration disease. What Ig present?

Acute

IgM

4

Disease lasting for a long duration - 3months
What Ig present?

Chronic

IgG

5

What are the leading causes of death in Americans?

Chronic diseases

Heart disease
Cancer
Stroke
type 2 diabetes
Obesity

6

Study of the status of something at a snapshot - you just get prevalence

Cross - sectional

7

Study that looks for prior exposure or risk factor - this one starts with the DISEASE

Case-control

8

This study looks to see if EXPOSURE affects likelihood of disease

Cohort study

9

TP/TP+FN

Sensitivity

10

TN/TN+FP

Specificity

11

TP/TP+FP

Positive predictive value

12

TN/TN+FN

Negative predictive value

13

Which is most impacted by disease prevalence?

Positive predictive value

14

Percent of normal population that is 1 SD?

68%

15

Percent of population that fall in 2 SD?

95%

16

Why does the occasional person fall out of the SD range?

Age, gender, geographical location

Ex. Higher HGB in Colorado b/c of elevation and less oxygen

17

What is fasting blood glucose level to diagnose diabetes?

Great than 126

18

What is the HbA1c used to diagnose diabetes?

6.5% or higher

This is preferred b/c it gives you a 2 month window of what blood sugar is

19

What is the most specific liver injury test?

ALT

20

What are the liver damage tests?

ALT, AST, and ALP

21

What are the liver function tests? (Aka failure)

Bilirubin

22

Which organ is tested with CMP but not BMP?

Liver function!!

23

What cardiac enzyme is most specific indicator of myocardial infarction?

Troponin!!

CK-MB is the isozyme for the heart

Myoglobin is the earliest level to rise with MI

24

What should the total cholesterol level be?

Less than 200

240 is very bad news - get drugs

25

What is HDL-C and the level?

Good cholesterol - transports away from vessels

40 or higher

26

What is LDL-C and what level?

Bad cholesterol - transports to vessel walls

Less than 100

27

What are the 2 most common lab tests to monitor inflammation?

ESR and CRP


High ESR suggests more inflammation, infection, etc.

28

What are the vit. K dependent coagulation factors?

2, 7, 9, 10

29

What is the coag factor inhibited by warfarin/Coumadin. What test monitors it?

7 - PT/INR

30

What coag factor inhibited by heparin? What test?

10 - PTT

31

Indicates bacterial infection?

Neutrophils

32

Indicates viral infection?

Lymphocytes

33

Indicates allergies or worms?

Eosinophils

34

What are the HGB and HCT levels needed to diagnose anemia?

Must both be low!

Less than 12 in women
Less than 13.5 in men

35

What is used to determine the TYPE of anemia?

MCV - this tells average RBC size

36

MCV less than 80

Iron deficiency

Tiny RBCs but normal to high in count

Microcytic

37

MCV greater than 110

Vit. B12 deficiency
Folic acid deficiency
Large RBCs but very low count

Macrocytic

38

What is the most common cause of anemia worldwide and its impact on RBC size?

Microcytic!

Tiny RBCs

39

What is the most common screening test for syphilis? What tests follow it?

RPR

Then FTA-ABS or MHA-TP to confirm

40

What test for UTI and what may show up in urine?

Leukocyte esterase

May have blood, nitrite, or protein

41

What will show up in urine with uncontrolled diabetes?

Glucose

42

What will show up in urine for a low carb diet?

Ketones

43

Which scan is least valuable for visualizing soft tissues?

X-ray

44

Why is a coag test, like PT/INR used to evaluate liver function?

If the liver is failing you won't produce sufficient proteins for coagulation and you'll bleed out

45

What is the threshold for high fever?

103 or above

Or 99 and above in infants

46

What are 2 proinflammatory cytokines involved in fever?

IL-1 and TNFa

47

3 criteria to define fever of unknown origin?

Illness at least 3 weeks
Temp of 101 or higher on several occasions
Failure to diagnose after 3 hospital visits or 3 days in hospital

48

What are the top 3 causes of FUO?

Infections
Neoplasms
Autoimmune disorders

49

What are headache warning signs that always point to a serious condition?

Visual loss
Disequilibrium
Confusion/lethargy
New onset seizure

50

Who gets migraines and how do they present?

Young women

Throbbing or pulsing pain - usually unilateral

Lasts 4-72 hours

51

Who gets cluster headaches and how do they present?

Middle aged men

Unilateral orbital or temporal - WAKES people up

Usually red eyes or nasal stuffiness

May cause ipsilateral Horner's

Abnormal pupil size between eyes

52

Who gets tension headaches and how do they present?

All ages and genders

Late in the day on weekdays

Band like distribution

May be worse with stress

53

Why must GCA be treated with steroids right away?

At risk for ischemic optic neuropathy

It is a medical emergency

Usually with jaw claudication b/c it is receiving less blood

54

What is the key to multiple diabetes related complications?

Free radicals

When glucose oxidizes it produces free radicals that cause damage to nucleic acid

55

What is atrophy?

Shrinking of size of the cell

56

What is hypertrophy?

Increase in the size of cells - not number of cells

57

What is hyperplasia?

Increase in the number of cells

58

What is metaplasia?

One mature cell type is replaced by another mature cell type

59

What is dysplasia?

Abnormal cell growth of a tissue that results in varying size, shape, and organization

60

What type of cells are a strong precursor of cancer?

Dysplasia

61

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis?

High bilirubin levels

Jaundice

Wilson's disease

62

What is Wilson's disease?

From damage to liver - copper binding protein is not produced so there are copper rings around limbus in eye

63

What is the earliest sign of Wilson's disease?

Kayser-Fleischer rings

64

What is the significance of liver failure on protein production?

When liver fails protein production stops

65

What is necrosis?

Bursting of cells - huge inflammatory response

66

What is apoptosis?

Programmed cell death

No inflammatory response

67

In exudates what is the protein concentration?

Very high - cloudy b/c lots of precipitate

68

What is protein concentration of transudate?

Proteins are very low - clear in test tube

69

What type of cells are in acute inflammation?

Neutrophils

70

What type of cells are in chronic inflammation?

Lymphocytes and macrophages

71

What is a key sign of chronic inflammation?

Granulomas

72

What are granulomas made of?

Dead material and active macrophages at core

Rim of lymphocytes around the core

73

What is Pangeria?

Aka werner's syndrome

Early aging

74

What are telomeres?

They are the end pieces of cells - each division results in a loss of a bit of them

They are our biological clock