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Flashcards in Block 2 Deck (16):

What is observer bias?

Observer bias is when the investigator has prior knowledge of the exposure status that affects his decision.


What does Mullerian agenesis lead to in a female?

A blind pouch vagina or an imperforate hymen


Tall stature, Gynecomastia, and infertility are associated with...

XXY (Kleinfelter's syndrome)


What does improper gut rotation around the SMA cause?

Billous vomiting soon after birth


How can muscarinic agonists affect the bladder?

Muscarinic agonists increase the bladder wall tension and can cause the release of Endothelium-derived relaxation factor.


If a carcinoid is producing symptoms then what has to have occurred (even if it is not detected)?

metastasis to (at least) the liver. Otherwise all of the products would get metabolized by the liver before reaching the systemic circulation.


What is the scenario that leads to Hemolytic disease of the newborn?

An Rh- mother is having her second child. She has had time to develop antibodies and is passing on IgG to her child


Delayed allergic reactions are associated with what type of cells?

T-cells! CD4 w/ MHC-2


What are increased cholesterol and decreased potassium associated with (drug)?

Loop and Thiazide diuretics


What is the best way to diagnose a complicated UTI/pyelonephritis?

WBC casts


Below what angle is Superior mesenteric artery syndrome a problem? What does it cause?

Less than 20 degrees causes impingement of the transverse duodenum.


Bacillus is a spore forming bacterium that can survive in the soil and under high temperatures

Remember it!


What is the direction of movement of neural crest cells in the GI tract? When is it complete?

Migration of neural crest cells is from top to bottom and it is complete by the twelfth week


What damage does lacking galactokinase cause in the eye?

Lacking galactokinase causes galactose to be shunted in the eye by aldose reductase leading to bilateral cataracts.


What type of mutations cause Sickle cell and HbC disease?

Missense mutations


Which is more easily elevated: serum calcium or urine calcium?

Urine calcium is much more easily elevated than serum calcium.