Block 2 Cartilage & Bone Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 2 Cartilage & Bone Deck (77):
1

fundamental ct cell

fibroblasts

2

stuff secreted by ct

extracellular matrix

3

hydrated, amorphus material; looks smooth, homogeneous under the microscope; has no form; typically gel-like

ground substance

4

long unbranched polysaccharide of repeating disaccharide units one of which is an amino sugar; eg hyaluronic acid; can have up to 25,000 disaccharide units; very hydrophilic, combine with much H₂O

gags

5

composed of a linear protein core (produced in rough ER) to which a large number of glycosaminoglycans attach; thus they look like bristles on a brush or have christmas tree shape

PGs

6

fasten various components of the extracellular matrix to one another including collagen and transmembrane proteins of the cells synthesizing fibers

glycoproteins

7

three proteins of ground substance

gags, pgs, glycoproteins

8

fibers of extracellular matrix

collagen/elastic

9

blank types of collagen exist

15

10

chondrocytes are in cavities called blank

lacunae

11

cartilage has blank blood vessels

no

12

3 types of cartilage

hyaline, elastic, fibro

13

type 2 collagen

hyaline/elastic

14

type 1 collagen

fibrocartilage

15

types of growth of cartilage

appositional, interstitial

16

most common cartilage and is in nose, long bones, trachea, bronchi

hyaline

17

hyaline cartilage has a blank surface for joints and a high blank

smooth, high tensile strength

18

elastic cartilage is similar to hyaline cartilage but it has elastic fibers and includes a blank

perichondrium

19

external ear, epiglottis, external and internal auditory meatus has blank

elastic cartilage

20

elastic cartilage cells are blank than hyaline cells and has blank intercellular matrix

larger, less

21

fibrocartilage is blank due to large amounts of collagen

acidophilic

22

iv discs, tmj disc, menisci, pubic symphysis all have

fibrocartilage

23

matrix of bone is blank by calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals

mineralized

24

bone has type blank collagen

1

25

osteocytes reside in blank

lacunae

26

bone formation steps

fibroblast, osteoprogenitor, osteoblast, osteocyte

27

osteoblasts becomes blank in its own secretion and turn into osteocytes

trapped

28

bone matrix that is not yet mineralized

osteoid

29

cluster of embryonic connective tissue cells (mesenchyme) secrete matrix →bone

intramembranous ossification

30

a hyaline cartilage model of the desired bone is first made and it is then stepwise replaced by cells secrete matrix →bone

endochondral ossification

31

multinucleated cells that destroy bone

osteoclasts

32

osteoclasts lie in depressions called blank

howships lacunae

33

bone is laid down in layers called blank

lamellae

34

first bone laid down; abundant osteocytes, irregular bundles of collagen, and is replaced by secondary bone

primary bone

35

bone that develops inner and outer tables (plates) of dense bone with intervening space (diploe) containing spicules of bone (spongy bone) and marrow in between the spicules

flat

36

external covering of bone

periosteum

37

entire inner cavity of a bone is lined by blank

endosteum

38

shaft of long bone

diaphysis

39

most spongy bone occurs at ends of long bone called blank

epiphysis at either end

40

spongy bone is aka

cancellous bone

41

dense bone is aka blank bone

compact

42

walls of bone is made of blank bone

compact

43

end of epiphysis that articulates is covered with blank

hyaline cartilage

44

this covers diaphysis

periosteum

45

periosteum has a fibrous layer and and inner cellular layer (endosteum) that has blank and blank cells

osteoprogenitor/osteoblasts

46

inserition of periosteum into bone fibers...

sharpeys

47

periosteum is a dense blank tissue

collagenous ct

48

holes of spongy bone can be filled by these

marrow, fat cells

49

4 layers of bone outer to inner

periosteum, outer circumferential lamellae, inner circumferential lamellae, interstitial lamellae

50

haversian canals contain blank

blood vessels

51

target looking rings of layers

osteons

52

interstitial lamellae simply separate blank

osteons/haversian canals

53

transverse canals that have blood vessel running through from one canal to another

volkmans canal

54

communication canals to share nourishment

canaliculi

55

collagen fibers of a given lamella run blank to each other but are blank to those of adjacent lamellae

parallel, perpendicular

56

compact bone mostly has blank

osteons

57

hyaline cartilage model of a given bone is first made by blank and blank growth... then chondrocytes in the center blank... and blank increase in size and calcifies

appositional, interstitial...hypertrophy... lacunae

58

a blank is when osteoblasts lay down bone on surface of cartilage model

bone collar

59

calcified cartilage cells die due to lack of diffused nutrients; empty lacunae become future blank cavity of bone

marrow

60

osteoclasts resorb calcified cartilage and bone complex which blank marrow cavity

enlarges

61

endochondral bone formation replaces all cartilage of the blank but not at the blank

diaphysis, epiphyseal plates

62

epiphyseal plates grow for this many years

18-20

63

zone of epiphyseal plate that is a mass of hyaline cartilage with no marked mitotic activity

reserve cartilage

64

zone of epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes are rapidly dividing, and there are isogenous cells parallel to direction of bone growth

proliferation

65

zone of epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes mature, hypertrophy and accumulate glycogen

maturation/hypertrophy

66

zone of epiphyseal plate where chondrocytes die and lacunae enlarge, cartilage matrix calcifies

calcification

67

zone of epiphyseal plate where osteoprogenitor cells migrate into area, osteoblasts deposit bone on cartilage matrix, and there is resorption by osteoclasts

ossification

68

as long as proliferation rate and resorption rate are equal, the bone grows in blank

length

69

primary center of ossification is in the blank

diaphysis

70

secondary centers of ossification are in the blank

epiphyses

71

eventually after bone growth, the diaphysis and epiphysis become blank

continuous

72

cartilage persists on the blank after total ossification

articular surface

73

order of zones of maturation

resting, proliferation, hypertrophy,calcification

74

immature bone has more blank than mature bone

osteocytes

75

immature bone has less organized blank than mature bone

collagen

76

appositional growth is growing blank

wider

77

interstitial growth is growing blank

longer