Blocks 10-18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blocks 10-18 Deck (212):

What is the cause of hereditary spherocytosis?

cytoskeleton abnormalities


What degenerative neurological disorder is more likely in those with down syndrome?

Alzheimer's disease is more likely in those with down syndrome


What is heteroplasmy?

heteroplasmy is when there are multiple genotypes of an organelle in a single cell line. Leads to variation in the severity of mitochondrial diseases


What is the diagnosis in a patient with blanched areas of skin after tanning?

Malassezia furfur is associated with blanched patches of skin after tanning


Is it okay to tell a coach if it is not safe for one of his players to be playing?



What is suggested by exertional syncope, angina, and dyspnea?

Exertional syncope, angina, and dyspnea are suggestive of aortic stenosis.


How does cortisol lead to long term maintenance of blood sugar?

Cortisol, not glucagon, is an intracellular binder responsible for the maintenance of blood sugar over a long time. It induces gluconeogenesis


A deficit of neurophysin will lead to what abnormality?

Diabetes insipidus can be caused by a deficit of neurphysin because it usually carries ADH


What is the most common cause of Guillan-Barré?

Campylobacter jejuni


What is the best screening test for hypothyroidism?



The incidence of which disease is markedly increased in kids exposed to second-hand smoke?



A lesion in which nerve leads to foot drop?

A lesion of the common peroneal nerve can lead to foot drop


Where is the concentration of PAH lowest?

In bowman's capsule. This is because it is filtered and then is actively secreted


Why does verapamil not affect skeletal muscle?

Verapamil does not affect skeletal muscle because skeletal muscle does not rely on extracellular calcium for its activity


a deficiency of what enzyme leads to ambiguous genitalia in genotypically male neonates

5-alpha reductase


What set of nucleotides are affected by UV radiation? How?

Pyrimidines (CUT) are cross-linked by ultraviolet radiation.


Where are enhancers located within the genome?

Enhancers can be located at many different places within the genome. They can be either above or below the promoter and can be very far away.


What is the cardiac effect of pulm. htn.?

Pulmonary hypertension leads to right cardiac hypertrophy due to increased resistance.


What are two main causes of PID?

PID is caused by N. gonorrhea and C. Trachomatis.


What is the most common cause of hypoxemia?

V/Q mismatch!


Which characteristic of bone pain indicates that it is likely to be neoplastic?

Progressive bone pain is most likely neoplastic


What is the formula for case-fatality rate?

Nfatal/Ntotal is the way to calculate case fatality.


What is the rate limiting step in acyclovir activity?

Phosphorylation by the host cell kinases is the rate limiting step in acyclovir activity


How do corticosteroids enhance gluconeogenesis?

Corticosteroids enhance gluconeogenesis by being potent stimulators of the production of the necessary enzymes for the process.


What is a mechanism of resistance against cephalosporins?

A change in the structure of the PBPs can cause resistance against the cephalosporins


How would you describe GBM to a layman?

GBM is a really nasty looking brain cancer with lots of blood that can cross the midline.


What pH is necessary in the lysosomes for efficient presentation of antigen on APCs?

An acidic pH is required for efficient antigen presentation by APCs


What is an essential AA in patients suffering from PKU?



What clotting measure is prolonged in severe liver failure?



How will body fluid levels be affected by SIADH?

Body fluid levels will be clinically normal in SIADH


What is a late sequel from sleep apnea?

Pulmonary HTN, not hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common late sequelae from sleep apnea


How is statistical power defined?

1-beta (confidence level)


Which infection is associated with erythema infectuosum?

Parvo B19


What cell line serves as the stem cells of the lung?

Type 2 pneumocytes serve as the stem cells of the lung


A deficiency of the CTFR causes what disease and symptoms?

Cystic fibrosis is caused by a deficient CTFR and leads to excessive ion loss through sweat along with pulmonary and endocrine issues


How do penicillins work?

Penicillins work by inhibiting transpeptidases as they are analogs of the substrate


Which cerebral artery provides blood supply to the cortex that powers leg movement?

The anterior cerebral artery supplies the blood to the cortex that powers the legs.


What is the first line treatment for reversing metabolic acidosis?

Insulin and normal saline are the first line therapies for reversing metabolic acidosis


What is the target of treatment of an acute gouty attack?

The cytoskeleton of neutrophils is inhibited by acute gout treatments leading to impaired chemotaxis


Which cancer is mostly likely to result from exposure to asbestos?

Bronchogenic carcinoma is the cancer most likely to result from exposure to asbestos.


Why is vitamin K required for clotting factor synthesis?

Vitamin K is required to carboxylate glutamate residues allowing clotting factors to be synthesized


Where is transketolase located in the liver?

Transketolase is a cytoplasmic enzyme of the liver


What is a motile, oxidase positive cause of otitis externa?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of severe otitis externa. It is oxidase positive and motile


What is the treatment requirement for women who are colonized with GBS at the time they give birth?

Intrapartum ampicillin is indicated in women who are GBS positive


What is the vector of schistosomiasis? What does haematobium cause?

Snails are the vector of schistosomiasis. S. haematobium causes a bladder infection.


What is an important measure in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?

Chest expansion is a crucial measure in patients with ankylosing spondylitis


What agent increases both cardiac contractility and renal blood flow?

Dopamine increases both cardiac contractility and renal blood flow


What is the cause of an annular pancreas?

Abnormal migration of the ventral pancreatic bud can cause an annular pancreas


Which cells are activated in TSS

Macrophages and T-lymphocytes are activated in Toxic shock syndrome.


What is an important scavenging enzyme in the fructose metabolic pathway?

Hexose kinase is allows for the metabolism of fructose when its traditional mechanism is inhibited


How does desmopressin work to help the clotting cascade?

Desmopressin can increase the release of factor VIII from the liver. This increases the clotting from vascular endothelial cells


What is the best clinical test of concentration?

Recalling months of the year backwards is a good test of concentration


What is the role of the Golji-tendon body?

The Golji-tendon apparatus prevents too much force from being exerted by the muscles. Remember that golji sounds like goljan and is for strength


What defines the shape of a neuron undergoing the axonal reaction?

Neurons become round with irregular chromatin at the periphery


What neurotransmitter activates medullary cells in the adrenal gland?

Medullary cells are activated by acetylcholine


What serum marker will be elevated in patients with hydatidiform moles?

hCG, not AFP, will be elevated in patients with a hydatidiform mole. A "dating" error can lead to a falsely elevated AFP


What is a cardiac congenital anomaly associated with Turner's syndrome?

Coarctation of the aorta is a common congenital anomaly observed in patients with Turner's Syndrome (XO)


Where does complement usually bind immunoglobulins?

Complement binds the Fc region of immunoglobulins near the hinge of IgG and IgM


What movement problem can meningiomas of the falx cerebri cause?

Meningiomas of the falx cerebri can cause movement problems in the legs


What cytokine activates eosinophils in asthma?

IL-5 is a cytokine that can activate eosinophils in paroxysmal breathing asthma


What is the relationship between resistance to flow and radius?

r^4 is proportional to the resistance to flow


Why is it not possible to saturate the excretion rate even when carrier transport is saturated?

Excretion rate depends not only on active transport ,but also on simple filtration, so it cannot be saturated


What is the role of cromolyn sodium?

Cromolyn sodium prevents the degranulation of mast cells.


What dietary modifications are required in someone who is suffering from a deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase?

Patients with a pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency need to be on a ketogenic diet, which can include the AAs lysine and leucine


Why do babies with hemoglobinopathies not generally experience symptoms during gestation?

During gestation gamma-globin is synthesized by the growing fetus. This minimizes any effects of an underlying hemoglobinopathy


What is the diagnosis in a patient with a atrophied ovary?

Turner syndrome is associated with Streak Ovaries


What is the pilus of meningococcus required for?

The pilus of meningococcus is required for pharyngial colonization but not for endothelial adhesion


Damage to the facial nerve can lead to what unexpected effect?

hyperacusis due to paralysis of the stapedius muscle.


What is the most likely cause of toxic renal injury in a homeless alcoholic?

Ethylene glycol


What disease is caused by Parvo B-19 in kids?

Erythema infectuosum


What serum marker will be elevated in those with a B12 deficiency?

Methylmalonic acid levels will be elevated in patients with a vitamin B12 deficiency


How does ribavirin work?

Ribavirin prevents the synthesis of new viral DNA. It is the treatment of choice in Respiratory syncytial virus


What is the most likely location for the compression of the common peroneal nerve?

The fibular head is the most likely location for the compression of the common peroneal nerve.


Which tissue type most strongly indicates a hamartoma in the lung?

The presence of collagen in a tumor of the lung strongly indicates that it is a hamartoma


Elevated ACTH rules against adrenal adenoma and for pituitary adenoma in patients who are experiencing symptoms

Remember it!


Where is mycolic acid found and how is it described?

Mycolic acid is a long branched fatty acid found in mycobacteria


What does BPH cause in the kidney?

Parenchymal pressure atrophy is the result of long-standing BPH


What is the strongest predictor of aortic dissection in someone without marfan's syndrome?

HTN is the strongest indicator of aortic dissection in those without marfan's syndrome


How does Staph cause liver abcesses?

Staph causes liver abcesses through hematogenous spread.


What congenital condition should you be thinking of in someone who presents with pez cavus and cardiomyopathy?

Freidrich's ataxia presents with pez cavus and cardiomyopathy


What statistical measures are influenced by prevalence?

PPV, NPV, others?


What is narcolepsy associated with?

Narcolepsy is associated with many daytime and REM sleep disturbances.


What does rheumatoid factor bind?

Rheumatoid factor is an anti-human IgG antibody


What murmur is associated with aortic stenosis?

Aortic stenosis has a classic crescendo-decrescendo heart murmur during systole.


Which cranial nerves are carried through the jugular foramen?

IX, X, and XI (ascending) along with the jugular vein pass through this foramen.


What is the relative pH of the duodenum?

The duodenum has a very basic set of secretions


What is a sequel of strep pyogenes?

Strep pyogenes causes post streptococcal glomerulonephritis


Which type of vessels are the first to develop athersclerosis?

The large and medium elastic vessels are the first to develop atherosclerosis


What is the course of tetanus toxin that causes infection?

Tetanus produces a toxin that passes from the wound to the motor neuron axons to the spinal cord


What is the most common cause of osteomyelitis?

Staph aureus


A deficiency of which enzyme will lead to a virilization of female fetuses?

A deficiency of aromatase leads to virilization of female fetuses


What AA is the precursor of serotonin?

Tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin


What is one of the most common sites of metastasis for renal clear cell carcinoma?

The lung is one of the most common sites of metastasis for renal cell carcinoma


What is one major potential side effect of high dose loop diuretics?

Hearing loss


What is the difference between a lacunar infarct and a hemorrhagic infarct caused by a charcoat-bouchard aneurysm?

Lacunar infarcts are ischemic and would not be initially present on CT scan


Which vessel receives oxygenated placental blood?

The inferior vena cava is the vessel that receives oxygenated blood from the mother


Name a cause of bloody diarrhea that doesn't ferment sorbitol and has a toxin that inactivates ribosomal subunits?

EHEC doesn't ferment sorbitol, and it's toxin inactivates ribosomal subunits


Which form of hemoglobin is often found in newborns?



What is a common sequel to subarachnoid hemorrhage?

vasospasm of the cerebral arteries is a common sequel from Subarachnoid hemorrhage


Which proto-oncogene is produced in Burkitt's lymphoma and leads to transcription activation?

C-Myc (Mike's sister returned with her two new breasts she was able to grow because of her herbs)


Which hormone is able to diminish the production of glucagon?

Insulin normally diminishes the production of glucagon


What type of cerebral hemorrhage is the most common in pre-mature newborns?

Germinal matrix hemorrhage is the most common in newborn babies


What is the difference between congenital hypothyroidism and botulism in babies?

Congenital hypothyroisism can appear much like botulism in babies, but is also associated with jaundice


Enlargement of which chamber of the heart can lead to dysphagia?

The left atrium sits immediately in front of the esophagus, so left atrial enlargement can lead to dysphagia


How is the murmur of mitral regurgitation described?

The murmur of mitral regurgitation is holosystolic


What EPS occurs within one month of beginning treatment with antipsychotics?

Akisthisia occurs after short term, but not immediate, therapy for psychosis.


What is the cause of hypercalcemia in those with lung cancer?

hypercalcemia in paraneoplastic syndromes is due to parathyroid hormone related peptide.


Which drug used in the treatment of sickle cell disease increases the synthesis of hemoglobin F?

hydroxyurea increases the synthesis of hemoglobin F


What are two important side effects of both minoxidil and hydralazine?

Tachycardia and edema can result from therapy with hydralazine or minoxidil. (Hydras and minotaurs make your heart beat fast and your arms swell up)


What is the one major heart defect that can be considered on the spectrum of normal in adults?

Patent foramen ovale can be considered on the spectrum of normal in adults.


Which substance is depleted when fermentation cannot be completed?

The purpose of fermentation is not only to produce ATP, but also to restore NAD+ which is depleted through glycolysis.


V/Q mismatch is the most common cause of diminished CO2 release by cells



What kidney disease is associated with beta-lactam Abx?

Acute interstitial necrosis is associated with Beta-lactam Abx


What infection will stain with a red halo on mucicarmine stain?



What is the equation for NPV?



What is the equation for attributable risk?

(RR-1)/RR=Attributable risk


What is the effect of TNF-alpha inhibitors on macrophages?

TNF-alpha inhibitors (infliximab) decrease macrophage functioning and can predispose to MTB


What does a deficiency in carnitine cause?

A deficiency in carnitine prevents the movement of fatty acids into the mitochondria. This results in a deficient production of ketone bodies


Someone with the inability to hydroxylate proline has which vitamin deficiency?

Vitamin C deficiency is associated with the inability to hydroxylate proline (an important step in collagen synthesis)


What is the most important determinate in the prognosis of post strep glomerulonephritis?

Age is the most important determinate in post strep glomerulonephritis


Can rhinovirus survive the acidic environment of the stomach?

No, rhinovirus cannot pass through the stomach.


What type of innervation is present in the adrenal glands?

The adrenal glands are one of the few locations that receive pre-ganglionic sympathetic innervation.


What treatment is needed to prevent the recurrence of HSV-2 during or after the primary outbreak?

Prophylactic long-term therapy is needed to reduce the risk of recurrence of HSV-2


Which type of study measures exposure and outcome simultaneously?

Cross-Sectional studies measure exposure and outcome simultaneously


In a patient who is anxious and unable to sleep, but who has to be fully functioning during the day, what is indicated?

A very short acting BNZ (triazolam, etc.) Is indicated in these people because they will effectively wear off overnight.


What is the genetic mechanism of huntington's disease?

Huntington's disease is caused by CAG trinucleotide expansion, but it acts by causing hypermethylation of histones and preventing the expression of some genes


Which artery is at the greatest risk in patients who fracture the femoral neck?

The medial circumflex femoral artery is the most at risk in patients who fracture the femoral neck.


Which form of hemoglobin has a high affinity for oxygen even in the presence of 2,3-BPG?

HbF has a high affinity for oxygen and is similar to the affinity of normal hemoglobin w/out 2,3-BPG


What is the most common cause of cholecystits?

Gallbladder obstruction is the most common cause of cholecystitis


What is the first line treatment for late lyme disease?

Unlike earlier lyme disease, which can be treated with doxycycline, late lyme disease has to be treated with a cephalosporin like ceftriaxone


Why does HDV need HBV?

HDV requires HBV to coat its viral particles


How does enoxaparin work?

Enoxaparin is a direct ATIII inhibitor, like heparin, but has a much lower molecular weight


Which metabolic disease is associated with ceramide trihexoside and can cause renal failure?

Fabry disease is associated with ceramide trihexoside and can cause renal failure


What is the first site of damage leading to atherosclerosis?

Endothelial cell damage is the first site of damage leading to atherosclerosis.


Where do macrophages bind immunoglobulins?

Immunoglobulins bind macrophages at the base of their conserved regions


What is a serious potential side effect of chloramphenicol?

Chloramphenicol can lead to pancytopenia


What are the main side effects of pioglitazone?

Pioglitazone does not cause hypoglycemia on its own, but it can cause weight gain and edema


What is wrong with a patient who has decreased compliance with a similar EDV, but an increased EDP?

Diastolic heart failure is due to decreased compliance leading to similar EDV, but an increased EDP


What is the most serious side effect of tamoxifen?

Tamoxifen significantly increases the risk of endometrial cancer, but it does not decrease bone density of affect lipids.


Which enzyme causes the release of bicarbonate in the duodenum?

Secretin, not CCK, causes the release of bicarb in the duodenum. It is also produced there.


Which genetic condition is associated with pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid malignancies?

MEN 1 is associated with pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid tumors


What is likely to result in someone who cannot completely empty their gallbladder? What does it predispose to?

Biliary sludge occurs when people are unable to completely empty their gallbladders. It predisposes to infection


Which part of the rectum needs to be biopsied in someone who has hirschsprung's disease?

The constricted (narrowed) segment of rectum needs to be biopsied in the submucosa.


I say palpable purpura and circulating immune complexes, you say...?

Henoch Schonlein Purpura is associated with circulating immune complexes and is associated with palpable purpura


What is the best place to go looking for H.pylori?

The pyloric antrum is the best place to biopsy to find H. Pylori


What structure arises with the thymus?

The inferior parathyroid glands arise from the same pharyngial pouch (the 3rd) as the thymus


What is a common problem in women with SLE and anti-phospholipid antibody who are pregnant?

Miscarriages are a common problem for women with SLE and APA


How many different sets can ANOVA characterize?

ANOVA is used for three OR MORE groups


When counseling a patient it is important to offer them your support before passing them on to someone else.

Know this!


What does an excess of methionine in the blood indicate?

Excess methionine in the blood indicates that there may be a deficiency in the ability to convert homocysteine to cysteine


Which enzyme is needed to convert OAA to citrate?

Pantothenic acid (CoA) is needed to convert OAA to citrate.


In a patient who broke their legs a few days ago, what is a potentially fatal condition?

Fat emboli are potentially fatal consequences from a fracture of the long bones of the arms or legs (especially)


How does the toxin of diphtheria work?

Diphtheria toxin works by ribosylating intracellular protein (EF-2)


What is the best initial treatment for hypoglycemia?

IM glucagon is the best initial treatment for hypoglycemia.


What is going on in urine that stains with cyanide and nitroprusside?

Cystinuria (aminoaciduria) is associated with a nitroprusside stain


Which drug class is the best for long term management of gout?

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (febuxostat and allopurinol) are the best drugs for the long term management of gout.


What is wrong with someone who works in a battery factory?

They have lead poisoning.


What form does cryptococcus have?

Narrow based buds


What antidepressants are known for their antimuscarinic effects?

TCAs are known for being anti-muscarinic


What stain is used to detect alpha-1-antitrypsin in the liver?

PAS stain can be used to detect A1AT in the liver


What is the main difference between cancer and dysplasia?

Displasia hasn't crossed the basement membrane and is still reversible


What organelle is required for the synthesis of secretory proteins?

RER is required for the synthesis of secretory proteins


What cell type is probably deficient in someone who is very short, but has a normal sized head and no mental difficulties?

Chondrocytes are defective in those with achondroplasia.


A patient has a weber test that localizes to the left and has bone greater than air hearing in the left ear. What type of hearing loss do they have?

Conductive hearing loss is associated with these findings.


What information can the confidence interval give regarding the significance of a finding?

CIs that do not include 0 or 1 (depending on the test) are significant


Which molecule is responsible for the systemic effects of an inflammatory process?

TNF-alpha is responsible for septic shock symptoms.


What is a sign of irreversible myocardial injury?

Mitochondrial vacuolization is a sign that the myocardial injury is irreversible.


Which tissues do lipid soluble anesthetics redistribute to?

Lipid soluble anesthetics quickyl redistribute from the brain to the muscles and fat.


What is the difference between Lesch-Nyhan, Hemophilia B, and Hereditary Optic Neuritis

Lesch-Nyhan and Hemophilia B are both X-linked disorders, while Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (Leber's) is a mitochondrial disease


Which organ arises from the same embryological structure as the inferior parathyroid glands? What is the structure?

Both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid glands arise from the 3rd pharyngeal pouch.


How many groups is an ANOVA designed to investigate?

An ANOVA is designed to look at three OR MORE groups


What is the only cholinergic receptor that actually leads directly to ion channel opening?

Only nicotinic cholinergic channels lead directly to the opening of ion channels


What is the microscopic appearance of Histoplasma Capsulatum

Histo traditionally appears as small eosinophilic ovoid intracellular pathogens


What is the mechanism of action of the flu vaccine?

Flu vaccine prevents virus entry into cells.


What muscle is affected in someone who cannot raise their arm above 90 degrees and has a prominent scapular angle?

The serratus anterior muscle is affected in individuals with a winged scapula. Long thorasic Nerve (C5-7)


What other AA is in the same metabolic pathway as cysteine?

Methionine is in the same metabolic pathway as cysteine


How does myasthenia gravis work?

Myasthenia gravis leads to antibodies against the motor end plate acetylcholine receptors. This reduces the endplate potential


Where in the respiratory tree is the greatest resistance to flow?

The medium sized bronchi have the greatest resistance to flow.


What is the activated form of pantothenic acid?

Pantothenic acid is converted to Coenzyme A


What defines a G- non-lactose fermenting bacillus

Pseudomonas is a G- non-lactose fermenting bacillus


What is the name of a toxin that ribosylates EF-2 causing it to stop working?

Diphtheria toxin A works by ribosylating EF-2 to prevent it from functioning


What disorder has parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic cancers?

MEN 1 has parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary neoplasms


What disorder has parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid?

MEN IIA has parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid.


What somatic mutation leads to MEN IIA?

A mutation of the RET proto-oncogene leads to MEN IIA. (Mike's sister returned with her two new breasts she was able to grow because of her herbs)


What disorder has pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, muco-cutaneus neoplasms, and a marfanoid habitus?

MEN IIB is associated with pheochromocytoma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, muco-cutaneous neoplasms, and a marfanoid habitus


What disorder in a quadruple pregnancy test has down, up, down, up?

Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)


Which disorder in a quadruple pregnancy test has down, down, down, normal?

Edward's syndrome (Trisomy 18)


Which disorder in a quadruple pregnancy test has all normal findings?

Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)


What other disorder shares a microdeletion with DiGeorge Syndrome (del22q11)

Velocardiofacial syndrome has the same deletion as DiGeorge, but has cleft lip, abnormal facies, and shares cardiac abnormalities.


What are the three main treatments to control asthma long term?

Leukotriene antagonists, LABA, and inhaled corticosteroids are the three main management treatments for allergic asthma.


What disease presents with flat facial features and extra skin around the neck?

Down syndrome will present with flat facial features and extra skin around the neck.


What should a child be able to do at three years?

At three years old a child should be able to ride a tricycle, copy a simple drawing (i.e. triangle)


What is the key cell in polymyositis?

Polymyositis is characterized by CD8+ infiltrates in the muscle


What "superdrug" can cause serotonin syndrome?

linezolid can cause serotonin syndrome


What is the best predictor of insulin resistance?

Waist-hip ratio is the best predictor of insulin resistance


How long does it take for a drug to reach the steady state?

4-5 halflives are required for a drug to reach a steady-state concentration


What congenital cardiac disease is associated with auditory deafness?

Congenital long QT interval (Jervall and Lange-Nielsen Syndromes) are associated with auditory deafness


What disorder of the parathyroid gland can result from Kidney failure?

Hyperparathyroidism is the result of kidney failure due to loss of calcium (decreased vit. D)


What is the most common cause of viral bronchitis in kids? How is it treated?

RSV is the most common viral bronchitis in children. It is treated with ribavirin


How is the direction of flow of an ion determined across the cell membrane?

Need to consider both the resting potential and the charge of the ion to determine what direction it will flow under a given set of cellular conditions.


What is one area of the country blastomycosis is associated with? What forms can it take?

The great lakes region is associated with blastomycosis which is a yeast at body temperature, but forms a mold under ambient conditions. It is dimorphic.


What is the best treatment for post-prandial hyperglycemia?

Short acting insulins (like aspart and lispro) are the best choice for post-prandial hyperglycemia.


What is the genetic mutation associated with sickle-cell disease?

A valine for glutamic acid substitution is associated with sickle-cell disease.


What ion abnormality is associated with ATN?

Acute tubular necrosis is associated with hypokalemia. There will also be an increased FENa greater than 3%


What cellular structure persists all the way from the trachea to the alveoli?

Cilia are the last cellular structure to disappear as the airways get smaller.


What molecule is most commonly produced by granulosa-theca cell tumors?

Estrogen is commonly produced by granulosa-theca cell tumors


What is the most appropriate treatment for an alcoholic with bacterial lung disease?

In treating alcoholics with lung disease need to use a drug like clindamycin to cover G- organisms and G+ organisms


If in doubt go with Methionine



What nerve lesion is associated with the trendelenberg gait?

The superior gluteal nerve is associated with the Trendelenberg gait


If a kid is exhibiting very strange uncontrolled eye-movements what disease should you be thinking of?

Think neuroblastoma in kids with weird eye movements


What is the main test abnormality in patients with HUS?

HUS is associated with an increase in the bleeding time.


What is a major side effect of sotalol?

Sotalol increases the QT interval.