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Flashcards in Blood Deck (123):
0

What are the functions of blood?

-transportation
-protection
-regulation

1

Transportation (a-e)

A. Carries O2 to body components
B. Carries CO2 away from tissues
C. Distributes heat
D. Carries compounds through body
E. Carries foreign organisms

2

Why is oxygen important to body components

All cells use O2 to metabolize glucose or fatty acids
-- producing energy in the form of ATP

3

CO2 carried away from tissue as____

CO2 and HCO3

4

Distributes heat

Aids in regulation of body temperature

5

Warm environment: (3)

1. Vessels undergo vasodilation
Increase in cross-sectional surface area of vessel

2. Outer vessels of muscles and skin respond to this especially

3. Heat can now leave the body

6

Cold environment:: (2)

1. Vessels undergo vasoconstriction
-decrease in cross sectional surface area of vessel

2. Heat will be maintained within vessels (and within the body)

7

Distributes heat;: ethanol (3)

(Alcohol)
1. Acts as vessel dilator
2. Causes heat loss to environment
3. May result in hypothermia

8

What compounds are carried by the blood through the body (3)

1. Hormones
2. Nutrients
3. Waste products

9

Endocrinology

The study of hormones communication

10

Examples of hormones (5)

A. Estrogen (main sex steroid in females)
B. Testosterone (main sex steroid in males)
C. Thyroid hormones
D. Cortisol (carried by carrier proteins)
E. Protein and peptide hormones (insulin)

11

Nutrients. Define. 3examples

-carried to cells that need them
A. Glucose and other sugars
B. Fatty acids
C. Amino acids

12

Waste products. Define, 1exampld

--carried away from metabolically active cells. Eg urea
Ex: runner produce a lot of lactic acid
--carried away from muscles via bloodstream
--produced by anaerobic glycolysis

13

Examples of foreign organism. (3)

Bacteria
Viruses
Protozoa in disease

14

Protection

1. Carries wbcs and antibodies (against bacteria and viruses)

2. Platelets

15

Platelets

Protection

--Leading to clotting
--opportunistic infections
People that are immunocompromised cannot combat basic infections

16

Regulation

1. Fluid volume
2. pH control

17

Fluid volume

Edema
Kwashiorkor

18

pH control

Blood contains buffers
-aid in the control of alkalinity or acidity of blood
- hydrogen ion (H+) --> acid

19

What is the pH of the body

7.4

20

Range of pH of the body

7.3 - 7.5

This range is tightly controlled

Regulated through number of H+ ions

pH 7.8 maintained over a long period of time will result in death

21

Examples of buffers (3)

1. Albumin
-similar to egg whites
-primary protein in blood

2. Hemoglobin (Hb)
-carries H+ , O2, and CO2
3. Bicarbonate ion (HCO3 -)

22

Compared pH values

1 lemon juice 2.0
2 stomach 2.5
3 intestine 8.0
4 urine 4-9 average is 6

23

Hemocrit

Centrifuge blood with anticoagulant

24

Anticoagulants used in hematocrit

1. Heparin
2. EDTA (sodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid or oxylate)
--bind calcium ions

25

Anemia


-low O2 carrying capacity of blood

26

Causes of anemia

1. Smaller than normal RBCs
2. Fewer number of RBCs
3. Lowered amount of Hb carried by RBCs

27

Polycemia

>60% Hct

High number of cells (mainly RBCs) in the blood

28

Physiologic polycythemia

--body over produces RBCs
--occurs naturally
--could be due to elevation change
Go from low to high elevation will stimulate RBC production due to low O2 availability outside of the body

29

Blood doping

RBCs are taken from am individual and then injected later to give a burst of oxygen

Training at higher altitudes

30

Polycythemia Vera

True polycythemia

--pathologic condition of those components of the body that produce RBCs
E.g. Red bone marrow

31

Neoplasia

New, abnormal cell growth

32

Amount of liters of blood in the body

4-6 L

33

Number of pints of blood in the body

8-12 pints

34

How viscous is blood

4-5 fold as viscous as water

35

Viscosity definition

--blood thickness
--increase RBCs = increase viscosity
The blood will be slow to flow

36

What percent Hct and viscous causes what problems

>60%
Will cause clots
1. Myocardial infraction (MI)
2. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

37

Myocardial infraction

MI

Heart attack

Due to clotting of coronary vessels

38

Cerebrovascular accident

CVA

Stroke

Due to clot in cerebral vessels
Brain tissue undergoes necrosis if does not review adequate O2

39

Necrosis

Cell death

40

Erythrocytes

RBCs
Filled with oxygen carrying hemoglobin
No nucleus (except camels or birds)

41

RBC count

Women

4.2. - 5.4 million per ul

42

RBC count


Men



4.6 - 6.2 million per ul

43

1000 ul = ??

1 ml

44

1000 ml = ?? L

1 liter

45

Types of white blood cells (4)

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
4 agranulacytes

46

Agranulacytes

1. Monocytes
2. Lymphocytes

47

WBC count

5,000 - 10,000 per ul

48

Platelets

Thrombocytes
--important in the formation of a thrombus
-- cell fragments derived from megakaryocytes

49

Life of thrombocytes

5-9 days

50

Thrombus

Blood clot

51

Platelet count

130,000. - 160,000 per ul

52

Liquid form of blood

Platelets

53

Contained in platelets

Plasma

54

Plasma proteins are produced by

The liver

55

Percentage of plasma proteins

6-9 g/dl or %

56

Plasma (3)

1. Albumins (60%)

2. Globulins (36%)

3. Fibrinogen (4%)

57

Globulins (3)

1. Alpha
2. Beta
3. Gamma

58

Alpha and beta globulins transport what

Iron and copper

59

Gamma globulins or

AntibodieS

60

Fibrinogen --->

Fibrin when clotting

61

Serum

Almost like plasma
Except devoid of fibrinogen and clotting factors

62

Electrolytes or ions

Liquid part of blood
(0.9%)

Such as cation, anion, and bicarbonate

63

Types of cations

Sodium
-some calcium an potassium

64

Anion present in electrolytes or ions

Chloride

65

Some phosphate

Types of bicarbonate

66

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells

67

RBCs oxygen

Pick up O2 from lungs and drop off at tissue

(Why high oxygen tension in lungs, low oxygen tension in tissues)

68

RBCs carbon dioxide

Facilitate CO2 to bicarbonate at tissues and bicarbonate to CO2 at lung and drop off CO2

69

Diameter of RBCs (um)

7-8 um

70

RBCs mm

7 x 10^-3 mm

71

RBCs micrometers diameter

7.5 micrometers

72

Thickness of RBCs (um)

2 um

73

Thickness RBCs mm

2 x 10^-3

74

RBC shape

Biconcave disk

Concave on each side

75

RBCs can

Increase surface area

-allows for gas exchange (O2 and CO2)

-allows RBC flexibility to squeeze through smallest vessels (capillaries)

76

RBCs carry

Hemoglobin (Hb)

77

____% Of entire RBC volume of Hb

33%

78

Do RBCs contain nucleus when mature?

No

Except camels and birds

79

What is hemoglobin

-protein molecule
- molecular makeup

80

Hb molecular makeup (4)

A. Polypeptide chain
B. Heme group
C. Fe +2
D. O2

81

Polypeptide chain

- tetramer (4 polypeptide chains)

-2 alpha chains

-2 beta chains

82

Heme group

(4)
-at center of each polypeptide chain
-non protein in nature
Total of four sides on each Hb that can bind O2

* rarely see all sites occupied*

83

Fe 2+

One iron atom at center of each heme group

84

O2

O2 binds reversibly at the iron
(associates with or carries but not as a chemical bond)

85

Hb + O2 Hb ~ O2

Hb ~ O2 Hb ~ [O2]2

Hb ~ [O2] + O2 Hb ~ [O2] 3

Hb ~ [O2]3 + O2 Hb ~ [O2]4

86

Oxyhemoglobin

- oxygenated hemoglobin molecule

- red color due to O2 binding to Hb

87

Deoxyhemoglobin

-darker color ("dusky brown") due to O2 bound to Hb

-less oxygen bound

88

Hb buffer

CO2 and H+ can bind to the Hb molecule

-bind on the globin part of the molecule (protein part)

*bind at different sites than O2

89

Hb affinity

Carbon monoxide (CO) binds to Hb (still 4 sites) but with an affinity For Hb 210x greater than that of O2

90

(Affinity)
CO binds ______ times greater than that of O2

210 x greater

91

Hb + CO Hb ~ CO

Hb ~ CO + CO Hb ~ [CO]2

Hb ~ [CO] + CO Hb ~ [CO]3

Hb ~ [CO]3 + CO Hb ~ [CO]4

92

In the presence of carbon dioxide

The binding sites for oxygen are full and oxygen cannot bind

93

In the presence of high concentration of oxygen

E.g. Breathing 95% oxygen 5% carbon dioxide

There is competition for the binding sites and the CO is displaced

94

The production of blood

He opposes

95

Production of red blood cells

Erythropoiesis

96

Erythropoiesis requires

1. Ferrous iron

2. Vitamin B12

3. Frolic acid

97

Red blood cells life span

120 days

98

How is Erythropoiesis controlled?

Hormone erythropoietin

99

Erythropoietin is produced by

The kidney
(Peritubular cells)

The liver in fetus
(Some hepatic production in adult humans)

100

Low oxygen dependent expression

- with low oxygen tension production is increased

E.x. Hemorrhaging or high altitude

101

High oxygen

EPO level down

E.g. After returning to sea level after time at high altitude or from space

102

____ EPO with age

Decreased

103

Effect of EPO

Increase in number of RBCs

Increases arterial O2

Plasma volume down

104

rhuEPO

Recombinant human erythropoietin

105

rhuEPO treatment

Of anemia in patents with chronic kidney failure

AIDS patents with anemia

Use for athletes is banned (integrity of competition and risk of thrombosis)

106

Where erythrocytes are produced

Adult-- red bone marrow

-long bones (femur, humerus, radius, ulna)
-iliac crest
- ribs
-vertebral column

Fetus-- liver

107

Bone biopsy

--core sample of bone and marrow to detect Erythropoiesis

--progenitor cells

108

Progenitor cells

-give rise to undifferentiated cells

-have potential to become many different types of blood cells

109

(5) stages of RBCs

1. Hematocytoblasts
2. Erythroblast
3. Normoblast
4. Reticulocyte
5. Erythrocyte

110

Hematocytoblast

Undifferentiated blood cell

111

Erythroblast

Differentiated towards RBCs

112

Normoblast

Large nucleus

113

Erythrocyte

No nucleus

114

Required for RBC production

1. Iron
2. Amino acids
3. Cobalt / vitamin B12
4. Folic acid
5. Lipids

115

Iron

-occupies center of heme group
- source: meats, green vegetables

116

Amino acids

Incorporated into RBCs (globin)

117

Cobalt / vitamin B12

Allows absorption in small intestine

118

Lipids

Present in cell membranes

25% of cell membranes of our body is composed of cholesterol

119

Iron deficient anemia

-deficiency of iron

120

Pernicious anemia

Deficient in vitamin B12

121

Causes of anemia (5)

1. Hemorrhagic (blood loss)
2. Renal failure (loss of EPO)
3. Parasites (malaria)
4. Blood incompatibilities
Poisons (snake/ spider venoms)
5. Drug reactions

122

Hypoplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia

Destruction of myeloid tissues by radiation,viruses, poisons

Eg. Benzene and arsenic or autoimmune disease