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Flashcards in Blood Deck (20):
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blood

fluid connective tissue

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components of blood

 Liquid plasma: nonliving fluid matrix; 55%
 Formed elements: living cells 45%
 Platelets: >1%

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1. Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC’s)

4-6 million
a. Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

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2. Leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC’s)

4800-10,800

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Granulocytes

neutrophil
basophil
eosinophil

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agranulocyte

lymphocyte
monocyte

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neutrophil

i. Phagocytize bacteria

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b. Lymphocyte

i. Mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies

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c. Monocyte

i. Phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in tissues

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d. Eosinophil

i. Kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma

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e. Basophil

i. Release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin, an anticoagulant

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3. Platelets

a. Seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental in blood clotting

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Hematocrit

• Packed cell volume (PCV)
• Determined when anemia is suspected
• The percentage of total blood volume composed of red blood cells.
• 40-54% in males and 38-47% in females.

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Differential white blood cell count

• 100 WBC’s are counted and classified according to type

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Blood typing

• When serum containing anti-A or anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) is added to blood, agglutination will occur between the agglutinin (antibody) and the corresponding agglutinogens (antigens).

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• Leukocytosis

o An abnormally high WBC count, may indicate bacterial or viral infection, metabolic disease, hemorrhage, or poisoning by drugs or chemicals

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• Leukopenia

o A decrease in WBC number below 4000/mm3
o May indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, or excessive antibiotic or X-ray therapy

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• Leukemia

o A malignant disorder of the lymphoid tissues characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal WBC’s accompanied by a reduction in the number of WBC count but also a differential WBC count

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• Polycythemia

o An increase in the number of RBC’s
o May result from bone marrow cancer or from living in high altitudes where less oxygen is available

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• Anemia

o Decrease in the number of RBC’s
o A decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of blood that may result from a decrease in RBC number or size or a decreased hemoglobin content of the RBC’s