Blood & Lymphatic Disorders Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Blood & Lymphatic Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood & Lymphatic Disorders Deck (79):
1

Functions of the blood?

Major transport system. Carries antibodies and WBC's (defenses). Controls body temperature.

2

Blood PH

7.35-7.45 (Alkaline)

3

An adult has approximately ____ L of blood.

5 L

4

What percent of the blood is plasma?

55%

5

What percent of the blood is formed elements(RBC, WBC, Platelets)?

45%

6

Proportion of blood volume occupied by RBC's.

Hematocrit

7

What percent hematocrit in males?

48%

8

What percent hematocrit in females?

45%

9

Elevated hematocrit could indicate?

Dehydration or excess RBC's

10

Depress hematocrit could indicate?

Blood loss or anemia

11

Normal RBC Count

4.2-6.2 million/mm3

12

Excessive destruction of RBC's results in?

Jaundice

13

Normal WBC/Leukocytes Count

5,000-10,000/mm3

14

Increase in WBC's (inflammation or infection)

Leukocytosis

15

Decrease in WBC's (viral infection, radiation, chemo)

Leukopenia

16

Total RBC's, WBC's, and platelets

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

17

Clotting factors to clot timed test?

Prothrombin Time

18

Stimulates production of RBC's.

Procrit (epoetin)

19

Cause a reduction in oxygen transport in blood due to low hemoglobin content.

Anemia

20

Decreased ____ = Decreased Oxygen

RBC's

21

Hemoglobin carries ___ molecules of oxygen at a time.

4

22

Decreased Fe, impedes synthesis of Hb. Reducing the amount of oxygen transported.

Iron Deficiency Anemia

23

______ Anemia affects mainly women and pregnant women.

Iron Deficiency

24

Pallor of skin, fatigue, lethargy, cold intolerance, menstrual irregularities, concave nails, delayed healing.

General signs of anemia

25

Tachycardia, heart palpitations, dyspnea, syncope.

Signs of severe anemia

26

Iron rich foods/supplements. Depends on the cause.

Iron Deficiency Anemia Treatments

27

Megaloblastic Anemia

Pernicious Anemia Vitamin 12 Deficiency

28

Usually results from a deficiency of folic acid or vitamin 12.

Pernicious Anemia Vitamin 12 Deficiency

29

Malabsorption of vitamin 12.

Due to lack of intrinsic factor (IF)

30

Results from the formation of autoantibodies against IF in the gastric mucosa.

Lack of intrinsic factor

31

B12 Malabsorption is the most common cause due to?

Lack of intrinsic factor

32

Enlarged, red, sore, shiny tongue, decrease in gastric acid leading to digestion discomfort, nausea, diarrhea, tingling, bringing, loss of coordination, ataxia due to neurological effects.

Signs of Pernicious Anemia

33

Oral supplements of B12 or B12 injections.

Pernicious Anemia Treatments

34

Impairment or failure of bone marrow function. Leading to loss of stem cells, and decreased numbers of WBC's, RBC's, and platelets.

Aplastic Anemia

35

Bone marrow damaged by radiation, chemicals, certain drugs, Hep C, autoimmune diseases (lupus), genetic abnormalities.

Causes of Aplastic Anemia

36

Onset is insidious, anemia, leukopenia (low WBC's), thrombocytopenia (low platelets).

Signs of Aplastic Anemia

37

Blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants.

Treatments for Aplastic Anemia

38

Abnormally shaped Hb.

Sickle Cell Anemia

39

When Hb is _____, it crystalizes and changes shape to a crescent shape.

Deoxygenated

40

Sickle shape obstructs ____. Causing thrombus formation, tissues necrosis, infarctions.

Small Vessels

41

Inherited, recessive gene

Cause of Sickle Cell Anemia

42

Common in individuals from African/Middle East

Sickle Cell Anemia

43

1 in 12 African Americans have the trait, 1 in 600 have _____.

Sickle Cell Anemia

44

Decreased incidence of ____ with Hb (sickle cell shaped).

Malaria

45

Jaundice, gallstones, enlarged spleen, vascular occlusions, infarctions, growth/development delayed, CHF.

Signs of Sickle Cell Anemia

46

Avoid strenuous activity and high altitudes.

Treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia

47

Many patients with _____ do not survive past 20 years old.

Sickle Cell Anemia

48

Indicated by spontaneous bleeding or excessive bleeding after minor injury.

Blood Clotting Disorders

49

Chemo, radiation, kidney failure, too much aspirin or blood thinners, vitamin k deficiency, liver disease, inherited defects.

Causes of Blood Clotting Disorders

50

Deficit or abnormality of clotting factor VIII

Hemophilia A

51

What is the most commonly inherited clotting disorder?

Hemophilia A

52

X-linked recessive trait. Manifest in males, carried by females.

Hemophilia A

53

Prolonged or severe hemorrhage occurs following minor tissue trauma or blood in urine/feces.

Signs of Hemophilia A

54

Coagulation time is prolonged with what blood clotting disorder?

Hemophilia A

55

Pinpoint flat red spots on skin or mucus membranes.

Petechiae

56

Results from bleeding from capillary or small arteriole.

Petechiae

57

Neoplastic disorders involving WBC's.

Leukemia

58

Overall survival rate is 45%.

Leukemia

59

Undifferential immature, nonfunctional cells. Multiply uncontrollably. Large quantities released into general circulation.

Leukemia

60

High proportion of very immature nonfunctional cells in bone marrow and peripheral circulation. Abrupt onset. Marked signs, complications.

Acute Leukemia

61

Higher proportion of mature cells. Insidious onset. Mild signs. Better prognosis.

Chronic Leukemia

62

Leukemia cell production in bone marrow _______ production of normal cells. Leading to anemia, thrombocytopenia, lack of normal functioning, bone marrow crowding on nerves, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly.

Suppresses

63

____ leukemia more common in older people.

Chronic

64

_____ leukemia primarily in children (2-6 years old) and younger adults. Cause is unknown.

Acute

65

Adults leukemia associated with exposure to ____, ___, ____.

Chemicals, radiation, viruses

66

Onset is marked by infection, multiple infections, anemia, severe hemorrhage, bone pain, weight loss, fatigue, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, spleen, liver.

Signs of Acute Leukemia

67

Onset milder, insidious.

Signs of Chronic Leukemia

68

Chemotherapy, Bone Marrow Transplant

Treatments for Leukemias

69

Malignant neoplasms involving lymphocyte proliferation in lymph node's.

Lymphoma

70

Occurs primarily in adults 20-40 yrs. old. Initially involves one lymph node. T lymphocytes appear defected, low lymphocytes.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

71

Reed-Sternberg cell used as marker. Giant, atypical, in lymph node.

Test for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

72

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Stage I

Affects 1 lymph node or region.

73

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Stage II

Affects 2 or more lymph nodes or regions on same side of diaphragm.

74

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Stage III

Nodes on both sides of diaphragm and spleen.

75

Hodgkin's Lymphoma Stage IV

Diffuse extra lymphatic involvement.

76

Large, painless, non-tender lymph node. Enlarged spleen, enlarged lymph nodes, general signs of cancer, recurrent infection.

Signs of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

77

Radiation, chemo, surgery, ABVD drug.

Treatment for Hodgkin's Lymphoma

78

Increase in incidence, initial manifestation.

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

79

Multiple node involvement scatter throughout body.

Non-hodgkin's Lymphoma