Blood & Lymphatic System (Chapter 11) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood & Lymphatic System (Chapter 11) Deck (86):
1

presence of RBCs of unequal size

anisocytosis

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presence of bacteria in the bloodstream

bacteremia

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abnormally reduced number of RBCs

erythropenia

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rupture of RBC membrane

hemolysis

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loss of blood from circulation

hemorrhage

6

abnormally large RBCs

macrocytosis

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large, irregularly shaped RBCs

poikilocytosis

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abnormal increase in the number of erythrocytes in the blood

polycythemia

9

abnormal enlargement of the spleen

splenomegaly

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presence of toxins in the blood

toxemia

11

acquired immune deficiency syndrome: caused by HIV, which disables immune response by destroying mainly helper T cells (which activate B cells); loss of immune function allows opportunistic infections to proliferate & eventually cause death

AIDS

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response to an allergen, which is an antigen that produces a hypersensitivity reaction that includes immediate inflammation but does not elicit other immune responses; allergies are of many types, most common are allergic rhinitis (hay fever) which affects the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity & throat, & allergic dermatitis which affects the skin where it has made contact w/ the allergen

allergy

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immediate reaction to an antigen that includes rapid inflammation & systemwide smooth muscle contractions

anaphylaxis

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reduced ability of RBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues, resulting from a reduction of circulating RBCs, amount of hemoglobin, or the volume of RBCs; common forms include aplastic, iron deficiency, sickle cell, & pernicious

anemia

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anemia characterized by the failure of red bone marrow to produce enough RBCs

aplastic anemia

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any of several diseases that is caused by a person's own immune response attacking otherwise healthy tissues; includes rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, & multiple sclerosis

autoimmune disorder

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form of poisoning caused by the ingestion of food contaminated w/ the toxin produced by the bacterium clostridium botulinum

botulism

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disease caused by a bacterium & its toxin, resulting in inflammation of mucous membranes, primarily in the mouth & throat

diphtheria

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general term for an abnormal condition of the blood

dyscrasia

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blood disorder that results from incompatibility between a fetus w/ Rh positive blood & its mother w/ Rh negative blood; causes the destruction of fetal RBCs & requires blood transfusions to save the fetus; Rh mismatch, hemolytic disease of newborn

erythroblastosis

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fungal infection distributed by way of the bloodstream

fungemia

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infection of a wound caused by various anaerobic bacteria; produces a fermentation gas, necrosis, & septicemia

gas gangrene

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inherited disorder that results in an excessive accumulation of iron deposits in the body

hemochromatosis

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inherited bleeding disorder that results from defective clotting proteins involved in blood coagulation

hemophilia

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cancer of lymphatic tissue; characterized by the progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, fatigue, & deficiency of the immune response

Hodgkin's disease

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condition that results from a defective immune response

immunodeficiency

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reduction of an immune response caused by disease or, in the case of organ transplants, by the use of chemical, pharmacologic, physical, or immunologic agents

immunosuppression

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multiplication of disease causing microorganisms w/in the body

infection

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swelling of body tissue caused by movement of plasma into the extracellular space to produce edema (fluid accumulation) in tissue; protective response of body tissues to irritation or injury; symptoms include swelling, redness, heat, & pain

inflammation

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viral disease characterized by a temporary inflammation of mucous membranes & fever; commonly called the flu, virus is highly contagious & capable of mutation to escape detection by WBCs

influenza

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anemia that is caused by a lack of iron, resulting in smaller RBCs containing deficient levels of hemoglobin

iron deficiency anemia

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cancer of the red bone marrow, which is the blood forming tissue; characterized by an increased number of WBCs, many of which are abnormal & nonfunctional

leukemia

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inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphadenitis

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literally, disease of the lymph nodes; this general term is often applied to a syndrome (LAS: lymphadenopathy syndrome), which is a persistent swelling of the lymph nodes that often precedes the onset of AIDS

lymphadenopathy

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tumor that originates in lymphatic tissue

lymphoma

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disease caused by a parasitic protozoan that infects RBCs & is carried by Anopheles mosquitoes; characterized by periodic fevers & fatigue

malaria

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viral disease characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, atypical lymphocytes, sore throat (pharyngitis), fever, & fatigue

mononucleosis

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bone marrow disorder characterized by the proliferation of abnormal stem cells; usually develops into a form of leukemia

myelodysplasia

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disorder that usually consists of bacterial infections contracted during a hospital stay (often MRSA)

nosocomial infection

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anemia caused by insufficiency of vitamin B12, resulting in RBCs that are large, varied in shape, & reduced in number

pernicious anemia

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any infectious disease of wide prevalence or excessive mortality; can also refer to an acute infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis characterized by high fever, skin eruptions, internal hemorrhage, & pneumonia (bubonic plague)

plague

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viral infection spread from the mouth of an infected animal, usually by biting; virus produces a neurotoxin that acts on the CNS & is highly fatal

rabies

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systemic disease caused by the presence of bacteria & their toxins in the circulating blood; person suffering from this is referred to as "septic"

septicemia

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inherited, chronic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin that causes RBCs to become misshapen, resulting in drowsiness, leg ulcerations, fever, joint & abdominal pain, & thrombosis

sickle cell anemia

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staph infection: presence of Staphylococci bacteria in the blood; frequent complication to normal healing & is the most common cause of food poisoning, skin inflammation, osteomyelitis, & nosocomial infections

staphylococcemia

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disease caused by a powerful neurotoxin released by the common bacterium Clostridium tetani; toxin acts on the CNS to cause convulsions & paralysis

tetanus

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tumor that originates in the thymus gland

thymoma

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therapeutic treatment in which a substance w/ known toxicity to bacteria is administered; obtained from fungus or other bacteria; effective only against bacteria, many types of which are capable of developing resistance, especially when not administered properly

antibiotics

49

chemical agent that reduces the clotting process

anticoagulant

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application of drugs to battle against a class of viruses that tend to mutate quickly, known as retroviruses (ex. HIV); also known as combination therapy because the drugs form a cocktail of nucleotide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors & protease inhibitors, blocking HIV replication

antiretroviral therapy

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process in which pathogens are rendered less virulent, prior to their incorporation into a vaccine preparation

attenuation

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transfusion of blood donated by a patient for personal use; common procedure before a surgery to avoid potential incompatibility or contamination

autologous transfusion

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field of science & medicine focused on study of bacteria & prevention of bacterial diseases

bacteriology

54

test or series of tests on blood samples to measure the levels of particular components

blood chemistry

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test to determine infection in the blood by placing a blood sample on a nutritive media in an effort to grow populations of bacteria for analysis

blood culture

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introduction of blood, blood products, or a blood substitute into a patient's circulation to restore blood volume to normal levels

blood transfusion

57

timed blood test to determine time required for a blood clot to form; prothrombin time (PT) measures time required for prothrombin (precursor protein) to form thrombin & is used to monitor anticlotting therapy, & partial thromboplastin time (PTT) which evaluates clotting ability

coagulation time

58

common laboratory blood test to provide diagnostic information of a patient's general health; includes hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood count, & white blood count

complete blood count (CBC)

59

microscopic count of the number of each type of WBC, using a stained blood smear

differential count

60

timed test to measure the rate at which RBCs fall through a volume of plasma to provide information on their hemoglobin content; commonly used to evaluate nonspecific systemic inflammation

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

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test that measures the percentage of RBCs in a volume of blood; obtained from centrifuging a sample of blood to separate blood cells

hematocrit (HCT/Hct)

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general field of medicine that focuses on blood related disease

hematology

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test that measures the level of hemoglobin in RBCs

hemoglobin (HGB/Hgb)

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stoppage of bleeding

hemostasis

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transfusion of blood that is voluntarily donated by another person; requires blood type matching, known as crossmatching, to prevent incompatibility

homologous transfusion

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procedure that provides immunity against a particular antigen

immunization

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study concerned w/ immunity & allergy

immunology

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treatment of infectious disease; use of agents to activate or strengthen the immune response

immunotherapy

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removal of lymph nodes for pathological study to assist in a diagnosis - biopsy

lymph node dissection

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excision of a lymph node

lymphadenectomy

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process of x-ray photography of the lymph nodes following injection of a contrast medium

lymphadenography

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incision into a lymph node

lymphadenotomy

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process of x-ray photography of lymphatic vessels following injection of a contrast medium

lymphangiography

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removal of a donor's blood, which is then separated into blood components, w/ one portion retained for use & the remainder returned to the donor; includes plasmapheresis (plasma), leukapheresis (WBCs), & plateletpheresis (platelets)

pheresis

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calculation of the number of platelets in the blood

platelet count (PLT)

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any treatment that tends to prevent the onset of an infection or other type of disease

prophylaxis

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measures the number of RBCs per cubic centimeter (cc)

red blood count (RBC)

78

excision of the spleen

splenectomy

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surgical fixation of the spleen

splenopexy

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process of dissolving a blood clot

thrombolysis

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excision of the thymus gland

thymectomy

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field of medicine that focuses on the study of toxins & the diseases they cause

toxicology

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inoculation of a culture that has reduced virulence, as a means of providing a cure or prophylaxis

vaccination

84

any preparation used to activate an immune response

vaccine

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field of medicine that focuses on the study of viruses & the treatment of the diseases they cause

virology

86

measures the number of WBCs per cubic centimeter

white blood count