Blood and Hematopoiesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood and Hematopoiesis Deck (43)
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1

Blood consists of

Formed elements (cells) and amorphous ground usbstance (serum)

2

Blood and fibers

Blood contains no fibers but upon injury, fibrinogen can form fibers

3

Blood develops from

Mesenchyme

4

Hematocrit and normal values

Percentage volume of blood by erythrocytes
Normal - 45%...lower=anemia

5

RBC appearance

Biconcave disc
Rouleaux formation forming columns

6

Reticulocytes and appearance

Immature RBCs...slightly basophilic from residual rRNA from hemoglobin synthesis (Howell Jolly bodies)

Basophilia lost after 2 days in circulation

1-2% of peripheral blood

7

Elevation in reticulocytes means

Increase in RBC production

8

Anemia

Decrease in blood concentration of hemoglobin due to reduced number of total RBCs or decrease in individual hemoglobin content

9

Platelets - origin and apperance

From megakaryocyte cytoplasm
Also called thrombocytes
Disc-like
Hyalomere outer zone of cytoskeleton (MTs_
Inner granulomere containing serotonin (vasoconstrictor) or other coagulation components

NO NUCLEUS

10

Granular leukocytes

Segmented nuclei and non-dividing terminal cells with life span of a few days...contain primary and secondary granules...include neutro, baso, and eosino

11

Agranular leukocytes

Nuclei are round or indented and contain only primary granules...lymphos and monos

12

Specific granules

Secondary granules
Found only in granulocytes and have specific functions in cell...characterized by staining properties

13

Azurophilic granules

Primary granules...function as lysosomes

14

Neutrophil appearance, lifespan, and function

Segmented (2-5 lobe) nucleus increasing with age
Basophilic nucleus
Can see drum-stick appendage or Barr body
Lots of neutrophilic granules and fewer azurophilic granules
Circulate 9-10 hours and enter connective tissue...live 1-2 days
Acute inflammation
Become PMLs after they leave blood

15

Band neutrophils

Immature neutrophils (1-2%)

16

Neutrohpilia could mean

Acute response to bacterial infection

17

Shift to the left

Increase in number of immature neutros leaving bone marrow and entering peripheral blood

18

Eosinophil appearance, function, lifespan

2 lobe nucleus
Specific granules exhibit crystalline core and similar to lysosomes
Circulate 1-10 hours
Allergic responses (ag/ab) and can clog kidneys

19

Eosinophilia indicates

Allergic reaction

20

Eosinophils produce

HIstaminase and aryl sulfatase B

21

Basophil appearance function and lifespan

Bi-lobed nucleus
Granules with heparin and histamine
Systemic allergic reactions and type 1 hypersensitivity reactions
Found in phagocytic
Large blue granules

22

Hematopoeisis

Blood cell formation

23

Hematopoietic tissues

Where hematopoiesis occurs
Begins in wall of yolk sac
By 6th week moves to liver where erythropoiesis is more pronounced than myelopoeisis
Post-natal sites are bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus

24

Erythropoiesis

In bone marrow producing RBCs

25

Lymphopoesis

Occurs in bone marrow and lymph tissue and makes lymphcytes

26

Myelopoesis

producing granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets in bone marrow

27

Bone marrow location

In medullary cavity of young long bones and space of spongy bone...replcaed by yellow throughout life...highly cellular connective tissue specialized for development of blood cells

28

Bone marrow functions

Initially - growth and remodeling of bone
Secondarily - hematopoetic

29

Bone marrow structure

Blood sinuses and spong-like network of hematopoetic cells that lie in cords between sinuses

30

BM components

Reticular conn tissue stroma
Hematopoietic cords
Venous sinuses

31

Reticular conn tissue stroma

Fromed from reticular cells and fibers (Type 3 collagen)...support developing blood cells and separate from endothelium...secrete CSF

32

Hematopoetic cords

Make up parenchyma...filled with blood cells of all type and stages...nests occupy different sites in marrow cords

33

Venous sinuses

THin walled vessels positioned between arteries and veins

34

How does new cell enter ciruclation?

Penetrate endothelium via diapedesis

35

Macrophages located

Close to venous sinuses

36

Myeloid and lymphoid stem cells are

Multipotential

37

CFUs

Erythroid, megakaryoctye, baso, eosino, and granulocyte-macrophage (monos and neutros_

38

What regulates hematopoiesis>

Glycoprotein hormones and stimulating factors

39

Erythropoetin

Controls RBC production

40

How are RBCs distinguished vs. others

RBCs on basis of color of cytoplasm
Others based on nucleus and granule color

41

Erythroid lineage

Basophilic erythroblast - deep blue because rRNA...from proerythroblast and can divide by mitosis
Polychromatophilic erythroblast - gray...last stage cells can dfivide
Orthochromatic erythroblast - pink
Reticulocyte - pink with small rRNA present...mature into RBCS after 1 day in circulation**
RBC - sac of hemoglobin

42

Myeloid lineage

Promyelocyte - ROund and foamy looking nucleus....only primary granule sythesis
Myleocyte - Slight indentation...starts to accumulate specific granules...last myeloid cell capable of mitosis
Metamyelocyte - markedly indented and post-mitotic
Band form - nucleus U shaped but not segmeneted
Mature cell- SEGS with segemented granules

43

Platelet formation

Undergo endoreduplication to cause multilobulated nucleus
sER is important
Strips of platelets (cytoplasmic segmenets of megakaryocytes) differentiate into individual platelets