Blood: Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood: Chapter 21 Deck (45)
1

When blood is separated, how much is plasm

55%

2

What is the purpose does the fact that blood transports heat

to bring it to the surface - cool us down

3

Is blood a connective tissue

yes

4

What are the three general functions of blood

transportation, regulation, and protection

5

Neutrophils

Neutrophils: first responders to infection
Phagocytosis
Release bacteria-destroying enzyme lysozyme

6

Monocytes

Monocytes  macrophages (“big eaters”)
Known as wandering macrophages

7

Eosinophils

Eosinophils
Phagocytose antibody-antigen complexes
Help suppress inflammation of allergic reactions
Respond to parasitic infections

8

Basophils

Basophils
Intensify inflammatory responses and allergic reactions
Release chemicals that dilate blood vessels: histamine and serotonin; also heparin (anticoagulant)

9

List the 3 types of lymphocytes

Three types of lymphocytes
T cells
B cells
Natural killer (NK) cells

10

What do B lymphocytes respond to

B lymphocytes respond to foreign substances called antigens and differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies. Antibodies attach to and inactivate the antigens.

11

How do T lymphocytes respond in an immune responce

T lymphocytes directly attack microbes.

12

Major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens

Proteins protruding from plasma membrane of WBCs (and most other body cells)
Called “self-identity markers”

13

What is contained in the plasma

Water: 91.5%
Plasma proteins: 7%
Albumin (54%): function in osmosis; carriers
Globulins (38%): serve as antibodies
Fibrinogen (7%): important in clotting
Other: 1.5%
Electrolytes, nutrients, gases, hormones, vitamins, waste products

14

What are the 5 types of white blood cells

Granular leukocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Agranular leukocytes
Lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells
Monocytes

15

What are the subcategories of White blood cells

Granular leukocytes
Agranular leukocytes

16

Agranular leukocytes

Lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells
Monocytes

17

Granular leukocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

18

hematopoiesis

the formation of blood cells

19

Lymphoid stem cells create what

lymphocytes (in lymphatic tissues)

20

other than lymphoid stem cells how are RBC created

Myeloid stem cells

21

Where are all RBC and platelets created other than lyphoid cells

Myeloid stem cells - red bone marrow

22

Pluripotent

embryonic stem cells originate as inner mass cells within a blastocyst. These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta.

23

What gives blood its red pigment

Hemoglobin

24

Does a mature blood cell contain a nucleus

no

25

What is the advantage of the RBC to have a biconcave disc shape

Provides for maximal gas exchange
Is flexible for passing through capillaries

26

how long does a RBC live

3-4 months or about 120 days

27

how do we recycle RBC

Cleared by macrophages (liver and spleen)

28

What is Heme broken down into

Fe
Carried in blood by transferrin (“protein escort” of Fe)
Recycled in bone marrow for forming synthesis of new hemoglobin; proteins and vitamin B12 required also
Non-Fe portion of heme biliverdin  bilirubin
Bilirubin to liver  bile  helps absorb fats
Intestinal bacteria convert bilirubin into other chemicals that exit in feces (stercobilin) or urine (urobilin)

29

In the blood, what is the protein escort of Fe

Transferrin

30

Erythropoiesis

production of RBC

31

What is the mother cell of the monocyte

myeloid stem cells

32

What is the major function of WBC

Major function: defense against
Infection and inflammation
Antigen-antibody (allergic) reactions

33

What type of WBC responds to parasitic infections

Eosinophils

34

What type of WBC releases bacteria destroying enzyme lysozyome

Neutrophils

35

What type of WBC Release chemicals that dilate blood vessels: histamine and serotonin; also heparin (anticoagulant)

Basophils

36

Function of platelets

Functions
Plug damaged blood vessels
Promote blood clotting

37

What are the stages of hemostasis

Vascular spasm, platette plug formation, blood clotting

38

Fibrinolysis

breakdown of clots by plasmin

39

thrombosis

Clots can be triggered by roughness on vessel wall

40

what is a loose clot called

embolism

41

What are the two types of antigens on RBC's

A or B

42

What type of Antigen and antibodies are found on type A blood

A antigen
anti-B antibodies

43

What type of Antigen and antibodies are found on type B blood

B Antigen
Anti-A antibodies

44

What type of Antigen and antibodies are found on type AB blood

Type AB has both A and B antigens
Type AB blood has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

45

What type of Antigen and antibodies are found on type O blood

Type O has neither A nor B antigen