Blood Lecture 1 / Ch 1 The concept of blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Lecture 1 / Ch 1 The concept of blood Deck (68):
1

Wha are the 3 Functions of Blood ?

- Transportation: Delivery of
Oxygen, Hormones,
Nutrients, and Minerals.
Removal of waste products
- Hemostasis
- Primary carrier of immunity

2

The average adults Total Blood Volume?

4-6 L which accounts for 7% of TBW.

3

Blood is composed of ?

– Plasma = 55%
– Formed Elements = 45%

4

Plasma is clear straw colored, viscous, and composed of

• 90% water
• 10% solids

5

Formed Elements found in blood account for 45% of the composition of blood, what are they?

- RBC (Erythrocytes)
- WBC (Leukocytes)
- Platelets (Thrombocytes)

6

Organelles within the cell?

• Nucleus
• Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
• Mitochondria
• Golgi Complex
• Ribosomes

7

Formed elements of the blood are cells with a very specific function. What are the elements that do NOT contain a nucleus?

• RBC and Platelets

8

Formed elements of the blood are cells with a very specific function. What are the elements that DO contain a nucleus?

• WBC

9

WBC depends upon ___ ___ to performits specialized function

protein synthesis

10

Blood Cell Production in the 3rd WEEK begins in ?

Yolk sac

11

Blood Cell Production in the 3rd MONTH begins in ?

Liver
Spleen
Thymus

12

Blood Cell Production in the 4th MONTH begins in ?

Bone Marrow

13

The production of mature blood cells from primitive cells in the bone marrow called?

Stem Cells

14

Hormonally controlledHematopoietic Growth Factors are also know as ?

cytokines

15

How many cells are produced daily?

1 Trillion

16

During Regulation of Hematopoiesis, Multipotent stem cells are influenced by cytokines and growth factors to differentiate into ?

Unipotential cells which ultimately becomemature blood cells

17

During Regulation of Hematopoiesis, Hormonal influence is exerted by?

– Cytokines (IL-#)
– Growth Factors (Il-#, CSF, EPO, Thrombopoietins)
– Vitamins, metals amino acids

18

Erythrocytes

• Released from bone marrow fully mature
• Cary Oxygen and CO2
• No Nucleus - No Cell division

19

A nucleated RBC would indicate what ?

extramedullary hematopoiesis

20

Erythropoiesis

Production of red blood cells by bone marrow

21

Decreased blood oxygen concentration detected by the kidneys would release what ?

Erythropoietin (EPO) is released from the kidney’s peritubular cells > Stimulates stem cells in the bone marrow to produce red cells

22

RBC Shape

Biconcave Disk– 7μ x 2μ
• Shape provides maximum surface area for maximum gas transfer.
• Flexible
• Traverse capillaries in Rouleaux Formation (single file)

23

RBC Life Span

120 days once the mature cell is releasedinto circulation

24

Reticulocytes

(immature RBC) found incirculation after blood loss

25

RBCs rupture when they die– Pieces are removed by macrophages in

the liver and spleen

26

RBC particles are called

“ghosts” or “cellstroma”

27

RBC quantity

4-6 Million RBC / μL

28

Pathologic states effecting RBC #

– Erythrocytosis– Anemia

29

Erythrocytosis AKA

Polycythemia (Too many RBC)

30

Polycythemia Vera (PV) AKA:

erythema
Hgb > 18g/dL
RBC > 6.2X10^12/L
Hct > 55%

31

Myeloproliferative disease

– Hct > 55%- This stem cell disorder, can lead to sludging in peripheral circulation leading to block in the microvasculature of the lungs and kidneys.
- Treatment = therapeutic donations

32

Anemia

Hct < 39 MHct < 33 Fnot a blood disease but anindication of a disease process.

33

4 Causes of Anemia ?

- iron deficiency- vitamin deficiancy- hemolysis- autoimmune disease

34

How many molecules of Hgb are in each RBC?

300 MIllion

35

What is the only true cellular component of blood?Why ?

- WBC- they contain a nucleus

36

Hematopoiesis definition ?

production of mature blood cells from primitive cells in the bone marrow called Stem Cells.

37

The development of blood cells is under control of protein hormones called what ?

Hematopoietic growth factors

38

The development of stem cells in hematopoietic bone marrow is called what?

Intramedullary hematopoiesis

39

Through a process known a differentiation, stem cells develop into what?

Mature blood cells

40

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have two functions, what are they ?

1.) Produce more stems cells
2.) Generate mature blood cells

41

Name the precursor to all blood cells?

Pluripotential Stem Cell

42

Pluripotential Stem Cells give rise to what two lines of cells?

1.) Myeloid
2.) Lymphoid

43

Myeloid line differentiate into what other cells ?

- RBC
- Platelets
- WBC: Granulocytes & monocytes/ macrophages

44

Lymphoid line differentiate into what other cells ?

- T Lymphocytes
- B Lymphocytes

45

List the 3 steps of stem cell differentiation.

- Pluripotential
- Multipotential
- Unipotential

46

Hematopoiesis involves the differentiation of multipotential stem cells into ?

unipotential stem cells

47

Unipotential stem cells are committed into developing into a specific blood cell type and have lost what ?

Ability to self-Renew

48

Inflammatory response cytokines respond to Inflammation, tissue injury, and foreign matter. Name 3?

- Interlukins
- Interferons
- tumor necrosis factors

49

Interlukins (ILs) function ?

Affect and enhance the functions of mature blood cells.

50

Interferons (INFs) function ?

Essential in the immune response to viral antigens and also for white cell function.

51

tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) function ?

Help protect the body against malignant cells

52

G-CSF

Garnulocyte - Colony - Stimulating Factor

53

GM - CSF

Garnulocyte - macrophage - Colony - Stimulating Factor

54

There are 13 intelukin molecues, which ILs cause stem cells to produce precursers to RBC, granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, & platelets?

IL-1 & IL-6

55

Used to describe all molecules responsible for the development of platelets from megakaryocytes. Give 3 examples ?

Thrombopoietins
1.) IL-3
2.) IL-6
3.) GM-CSF

56

During fetal life, where is erythropoietin produced?

Liver Continues to produce about 10% of this hormone after birth.

57

Other molecules necessary for blood cell development?

Vitamins: B12, folic acid
Metals: Iron, Cobalt,& Manganese
Hormones: Thyroxin Amino acids

58

Yellow marrow

- 96% fat - Not involved in hematopoiesis

59

Unlike yellow matter, Hematopoietic matter contains stem cells in its _____.

stroma, a spongy fibrous material. 25% solid material 75 % water

60

hematopoiesis that takes place in tissues other than bone marrow.

Extramedullary hematopoiesis, normal in the Embryo, and abnormal in the adult. If present in adult it is a sign of bone marrow malfunction. - Yolk sac- liver - spleen - thymus

61

Organ responsible for T lymphocyte development?

Thymus

62

At Birth = All bones produse bloodAdult = Only flat bones produce blood; what are they?

skull, sternum, ribs, pelvis, vertebrae

63

In the elderly hematopoietic marrow of the cranium becomes jelly like forming what is called ?

- gelatinous marrow &- no longer plays a role in hematopoiesis.

64

Mature blood cells predominate in the circulation of healthy individuals. What can we expect to find in individuals with advanced diseases?

Immature and abnormal blood cells in greater quantities than mature blood cells.

65

Granulocytes are characterized by what ?

granules within their cytoplasm

66

Monocytes give rise to what ?

Macrophages

67

Leukocytes include the following:

Granulocytes:-Neutrophil-Eosinophil -Basophil Monocytes and Macrophages Lymphocytes

68

Solids in the blood are composed of what?

- Clotting Proteins
- Complement Proteins
- Albumin
- Immunoglobulins
- Carbohydrates: Glucose
- Electrolytes: Na+, K+, ect.