Blood Lecture 2 Plasma Antibody Complement Immunity Ch10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Blood Lecture 2 Plasma Antibody Complement Immunity Ch10 Deck (35):
1

Primary function of plasma that Moves in and out of vascular system across the capillary membranes ?

Transportation of:
- cells, electrolytes, vitamins, carbohydrates,
proteins and lipids
– Remove waste

2

Serum is

- Plasma minus Plasminogen
- Serum is the liquid portion of
the blood after a clot has
formed

3

Plasma is

- the liquid portion of the blood
mostly H2O.
- 4% of TBW

4

7 Plasma proteins functions

– Maintain osmotic pressure
and therefore fluid volume.
– Transport molecules
(hormones, vitamins, drugs).
– Coagulation
– Enzymes for numerous
chemical reactions.
– Buffer system to maintain pH.
– Nutritional back up.
– Immunity

5

The majority of plasma proteins are synthesized in the Liver.
Name the 3 classes of plasma proteins.

• Albumin 60%
• Globulins 40%
• Fibrinogen

6

Albumins primary functions?

- Maintains osmotic pressure BETWEEN BLOOD AND body tissue.
- Major transport carrier of
other molecules

7

Albumin deficiency can promote what?

- Edema, due to fluid retention in the interstitial space.

8

Name 3 Globulins ?

– Complement proteins
– Immunoglobulins (Ab)
– Antithrombin III (ATIII)

9

Globulin is a generic term used to describe all proteins in the plasma except what?

- Albumin &
- Fibrinogen

10

Globulins Functions ?

- Act as enzymes in many
metabolic processes.
- Responsible for humoral
immunity
- Transportation of:
- heme, hormones, & metals

11

Four types of globulin proteins

Alpha 1
Alpha 2
Beta 1
Immunoglobulins

12

Fibrinogen

- Inactive form of fibrin
- clotting protein that stabilizes
the platelet plug
- Protein with highest affinity
for extracorporeal surfaces.

13

Hypofibrinogenemia

100 mg/dl

14

Hypoproteinemia

Decreased plasma protein
concentration due to:
– Malnutrition
- malabsorption
- excretion
- hemodilution
- (cirrhosis)

15

Hyperproteinemia

Increased plasma protein
concentration due to:
- Dehydration
- Multiple Myeloma (production
of paraproteins)
- Hyperviscosity = clotting in
microvasculature.

16

treatment for Hyperproteinemia

• therapeutic plasmapherisis
• Suppress synthesis of paraproteins

17

Non-Protein plasma solutes

• Electrolytes
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids

18

What is the primary plasma carbohydrate ?
What is the normal level?

Glucose
72-137 mg/dl

19

Cholesterol normal level ?

< 200 mg/dl

20

Lipoprotein normal level?

< 50 mg.dl

21

Complement System

* is part of the innate
immune reaction
* 25-30 inactive soluble
proteins.
* Vasoactive molecules that take a part in the inflammatory response.

22

Complement function

- Antigen destruction
- Inflammatory response to
tissue injury; Increase
vascular permeability
- Immune protection until
antibody can reach full force
7-14 days.
- Opsonization
- Lysis

23

3 Complement Pathways

• Classical Pathway
• Alternative
• Lectin Pathway

24

All complement pathways lead into a common pathway
which produces what ?


Membrane Attack
Complex (MAC)

25

Classical pathway
Triggered by:

antigen opsonized by either
IgM or IgG

26

Alternate pathway
Triggered by:

– Polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharides found
on the outer membrane of microorganisms
– Toxins produced by microorganisms
– IgA and IgG
– CPB

27

The following indicate that the protein has been cleaved into its active components

“a” and “b”

28

Anaphyoltoxin:

Active components that
don’t end up stuck to a cell may have strong
inflammatory influence.
– C3a, C4a, C5a

29

Membrane attack complex

- Group of 5 Complement
proteins (C5, C6, C7, C8,
C9)
- Create a hole in the cell
membrane leading to
destruction of the cell

30

Foreign surface of the ECC activates what?

Complement system

31

Activated protein is…

– directed against the hosts cells (leading to
phagocytosis and lysis)
– (WBIR, SIRs)

32

Antigen (Ag)

Any foreign matter that enters the body
and…
– Can bind antibody
– Can bind to a T or B cell receptor

33

most abundant solute in plasma ?

Protein 6.5 - 8 g/dl

34

Vasoactive definition ?

Refers to the effect that molecues have on blood vessels, such as vascular permeability.

35

Complement proteins can work independently of antibody to destroy antigen through opsonization and lysis, but they are most effective in destroying antigen when assisted by what?

Antibody