Blood Pathology Pt 2: Lymphoma, Myeloma, Hemostasis, Bleeding and Thrombotic Disorders Flashcards Preview

DMD 5243 > Blood Pathology Pt 2: Lymphoma, Myeloma, Hemostasis, Bleeding and Thrombotic Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Pathology Pt 2: Lymphoma, Myeloma, Hemostasis, Bleeding and Thrombotic Disorders Deck (46):
1

non hodgkin lymphoma

malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells in peripheral lymph nodes
skips around
extranodal involvement is common
many subtypes
most are b cell
over 40 yo

2

hodgkin lymphoma

younger patients
good prognosis
contiguous spread
good prognosis
consequence of EBV
5 subtypes
reed-sternberg cells

3

symptoms of no hodgkin

painless, extranodal manifestations, b symptoms (weight loss, night sweats, fever)

4

low grade non hodgkin

older patients, incurable, small mature cells, non destructive

5

high grade non hodgkin

younger patients
aggressive
large distinct cells
destruct

6

small lymphocytic lymphoma

low grade nh
same thing as cll
cd5+
long course, lethal infections

7

malt lymphoma

low grade nh
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue
H. pylori
can be cured early with antibiotics

8

follicular lymphoma

low grade nh
small cleaved centroblast
grades 1-3
bcl2

9

4 stages of follicular lymphoma

single node
2+ nodes on same side of diaphragm
lymph nodes on both sides of diaphragm
diffuse extranodal involvement

can have a or b subset in each (no additional symptoms, or weight loss, night sweats, fever)

10

mycosis fungoides

low grade nh
skin lesions, blood involvement, cerebriform lymphocytes, t cell immunophenotype

11

large cell lymphoma

high grade nh
large b cells
grows fast
extranodal involvement
bad prognosis

12

lymphoblastic lymphoma

high grade nh
typical patient: teenage boy with mediastinal mass
same as all

13

burkitt lymphoma

high grade nh
children/young adults
african preference
fast growing
starry sky pattern
genetic

14

nodular sclerosis

hodgkin
tumor splits into 2 nodes
LACUNAR cells
common

15

mixed cellularity

hodgkin
rs cells surrounded by eosinophils, lymphocytes and histiocytes
common

16

lymphocyte predominance

hodgkin
nodules contain small lymphocytes with histiocytes and rs cells

17

multiple myeloma

malignant proliferation of plasma cells
monoclongal gammopathy
decreased immunoglobulins
ostolytic lesions

18

manifestations of multiple myeloma

weakness, infections, renal failure, bone pain, hyperglycemia, bence jones proteins in urine

19

CRAB

multiple myeloma
calcium elevated
renal failure
anemia
bone lytic lesions

20

treatment of multiple myeloma

chemo and radiation
bone marrow transplant

21

hemostasis

formation annd removal of a blood clot

22

clotting formation

bm exposed with injury
platelet adheres wi vWF
platelet releases granules (ca2+ activates clotting, ADP activates other platelets, thromboxane increases stickiness)
platelets express fibrin receptors
fibrin and platelets form plug

23

clot cascade inhibition

tfp1 - factor 7
atiii - factors 7, 9, 11, 10, thrombin
protein c - factors 8 and 5

24

clot lysis

t-pa - converts plasminogen to plasmin
PLASMIN - bomb that blows up clot

25

fdp

fibrin degradation product
measured from blood as an indicator of clot status

26

warfarin

vit k dependent factor
inhibits use of vitamin k
NO CLOTTING = bleed to death (rat poison)

27

lab tests for clotting

platelet lab test - particle counter
bleeding time - make incision and see how long it takes to stop bleeding
coagulation test - draw blood, watch for thrombin formation

28

platelet bleeding

superficial, petechia, spontaneous

29

factor bleeding

deep, big bleeds, trauma

30

partial thromboplastin time

measures platelets in plasma from intrinsic pathway
with phospholipid and calcium

31

prothrombin time

measures platelets in plasma from extrinsic pathway
uses a prothrombin ratio

32

von willebrand disease

loss of factor 8
most common bleeding disorder
autosomal dom
vWF decreased
symptoms - mucosal bleeding, deep joint bleeding

33

hemophilia a

most common factor deficiency
x-linked recessive
reduced factor 8

34

hemophilia b

reduced factor 9
less common
x linked recessive

35

disseminated intravascular coagulation

widespread activation of coagulation
decreased clotting factors and platelets
increased fdps

36

causes of disseminated intravascular coagulation

MOST
malignancy
obstetric complications
spesis
trauma

37

thrombic microangiopathies

thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles due to an endothelial injury

38

thrombic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

deficiency of adamst13
big vWF multimers trap platelets

39

hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)

related to e. coli infecton
toxin damages endothemium

40

idiopathic thrombocytopenic pupura

antiplatelet antibodies coat platelets
splenic macrophages consume platelets
(bruising after minor trauma)

41

thrombic disorders

hemostasis involving the formation of an intravascular clot or thrombus
risk factors: smoking, increased stasis, hypercoagulability

42

fates of thrombi in venous thrombosis

propagation - accumulate additional platelets and fibrin
embolization - dislodge and travel to other sites in vessel
dissolution - shrinkage/disappearance of recent thrombi
organization and recanalization - older thrombi re-used, capillaries reform

43

mural venous thrombosis

thrombi that adhere to vessel wall, partially restricting flow

44

occlusive venous thrombosis

thrombi that cut off blood flow

45

embolus venous thrombosis

detatched intravascular solid, liquid, or gas mass carried in blood
can lodge in vessel and completely block blood flow

46

what can high estrogen cause in regard to thrombic disorders?

increased plasma fibrinogen
increased factors 7 and 10
reduced antithrombin3