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Flashcards in blood - phyana lec Deck (60):
1

– pale yellow fluid
-volume remains relatively constant

plasma

2

Plasma Proteins
contributes to the osmotic pressure of blood

albumin

3

Plasma Proteins
some are part of the immune system (antibodies and complement), some are transport molecules, some are clotting factors (fibrinogen)

globulin

4

Plasma Proteins
clotting factor (converted to fibrin)

fibrinogen

5

process of blood cell production

hematopoiesis

6

plasma without clotting factors

serum

7

where all formed elements are derived
-differentiate to give rise to different cell lines

stem cells or hemacytoblasts

8

main component of RBC
-accounts for about 1/3 of RBC’s volume and red color

hemoglobin

9

– responsible for oxygen transport
-consists of 4 protein chains and 4 heme groups

hemoglobin

10

has 2/3 of the body’s iron

hemoglobin

11

color of blood
Hemoglobin + O2

bright red

12

color of blood
Hemoglobin (without O2)

dark red

13

– binds to iron in hemoglobin about 210 times more readily than does oxygen
-does not tend to unbind
-nausea, headache, unconsciousness, death

carbon monoxide

14

produced in tissues
-transported to the lungs where it is removed from the blood
-its transport involves bicarbonate ions, hemoglobin, plasma
-much is transported in the form of bicarbonate ions
-can reversibly bind to the globin of hemoglobin

carbon dioxide

15

catalyzes a reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into a H ion and HCO3- ion

carbonic anhydrase

16

give rise to the red blood cell line

Proerythroblast

17


Requirements for the Cell Division of RBC:

Foliate
B12
Iron

18

hormone that stimulates red bone marrow to produce more RBC
-negative feedback mechanism

erythropoeitin

19

in what form is heme converted during hemoglobin breakdown

bilirubin

20

– yellowish skin color due to build up of bilirubin in the circulation

jaundice

21

-spherical cells that lack hemoglobin
-larger than RBC
-has nucleus
-leaves the blood and travels by amoeboid movement

WBC

22

most common type of WBC
-small granules (stain in both acidic and basic dyes)
-2-4 lobes
-remain in blood for a short time
-phagocytize microorganisms

neutrophil

23

– least common WBC
-large granules (blue or purple with basic dyes)
-release histamine and heparin (prevents formation of clots)

basophil

24

– bright red granules with eosin (acidic stain)
-2 lobed nucleus
-involved in inflammatory responses associated with allergies and asthma
-involved in destroying worm parasites

eosinophil

25

– smallest WBC
-has a thin, unnoticeable ring (plasma membrane)
-involved in body’s immune response
-production of antibodies

lymphocytes

26

largest of the WBC
-leave the blood, enter tissues, enlarge and become macrophages

monocytes

27

phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, cell fragments, etc
-present the processed substances to lymphocytes to activate them

macrophages

28

-produced in red bone marrow from megakaryocytes (large cells)

platelets

29

blood loss prevention
immediate but temporary constriction of a blood vessel
-results when a smooth muscle within the vessel contracts
-also produced by chemicals

vascular spasm

30

blood loss prevention
accumulation of platelets that can seal up a small break in a blood vessel

platelet plug

31

step in platelet plug formation

platelets stick to the collagen exposed by blood vessel damage
-mediated through von Willebrand factor
-after platelets adhere to collagen, they become activated, change shape, release chemicals

32

step in platelet plug formation
– platelets release chemicals (ADP and thromboxane) to activate platelets
-activated platelets release chemicals, which activates more platelets
-a positive feedback

platelet release reaction

33

step in platelet plug formation
-fibrinogen forms bridges between fibrinogen receptors of numerous platelets, resulting in a platelet plug

platelet aggregation

34

– protein produced and secreted by blood vessel endothelial cells
-forms a bridge between collagen and platelets by binding to platelet surface receptors and collagen

von Willebrand factor

35

proteins found within plasma which affect the formation of a clot
-present in plasma but are inactive
-activated following an injury
-most are manufactured un the liver

clotting factors

36

needed for synthesis of clotting factors

vit K and Ca

37

sources of K

diet and bacteria

38

– prevent clotting factors from forming clots under normal conditions

anticoagulants

39

examples of eanticoagulants

Antithrombin and heparin inactivate thrombin
No thrombin, no fibrin, no clot

40

*At an injury site, activation of clotting factors Is very rapid, anticoagulants ____prevent them

cannot

41

*Away from the injury site, there are ____ anticoag

enough

42

– condensing of a clot into a more compact structure
-pulls the edges of the damaged blood vessel together, helping stop the flow of blood

clot retraction

43

– dissolution of a clot

fibrinolysis

44

used to dissolve clots.

Streptokinase and t-PA

45

transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another

transfusion

46

– introduction of a fluid other than blood
(such as saline or glucose solution) into the blood

infusion

47

– clumping of rupture of blood cells and clotting within blood vessels
-caused by interactions between antigens and antibodies

transfusion reaction

48

proteins found in the plasma
-very specific, each antibody can bind only to a certain antigen

antibodies

49

determines the ABO and Rh blood groups of a blood sample
-cells are separated from serum
-tested with known antibodies to determine the antigen

blood typing

50

– donor’s blood cells are mixed with recipient’s serum
-donor’s serum is mixed with recipient’s blood cells
-safe for transfusion if there is no agglutination

crossmatch

51

– overabundance of RBC

erythrocytosis

52

– lower than normal WBC resulting from decreased production or destruction of red marrow
-caused by radiation, drugs, tumors, viral infections, deficiency of folate or Vit B12

leukopenia

53

– abnormally high WBC
-caused by bacterial infections

leukocytosis

54

cancer of the red marrow characterized by abnormal production of one or more of WBC types
-can cause leukocytosis

leukemia

55

-determines the percentage of the 5 kinds of WBC
-source of insight into a patient’s condition

differential WBC

56

– greatly reduced platelet count
-results in chronic bleeding through small vessels and capillaries
-caused by decreased platelet production caused by hereditary disorders, lack of vit B12 (pernicious anemia), drug or radiation therapy

THROMBOCYTOPENIA

57

-calculates how long it takes for the blood to start clotting
-normal: 9-12 seconds
-thromboplastin + whole plasma

PROTHROMBIN TIME

58

-prothrombin time is officially reported as the

International Normalized Ratio (INR)

59

-which standardizes the time it takes to clot on the basis of the slightly different thromboplastins used by different labs

International Normalized Ratio (INR)

60

starts the process of clotting

Thromboplastin –

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