Flashcards in Blood Transfusions, Group Types and Compatibilities Deck (23):
Discuss the significance of the following statement:
“The D antigen is the most immunogenic of the Rh antigens.”
Presence of a single D antigen confers upon an individual the designation Rh-positive; its absence means that the person is Rh-negative. The letter d is commonly used to indicate the lack of D in Rh-negative individuals, but neither d antigen nor anti-d has been detected.
Why is blood type O Rh-negative referred to as the universal donor?
Type O blood lacks antigens on the outside of the red blood cells. This means that our immune system will not react to the blood because there is no antigen to react against.
Why is cross-matching necessary prior to a blood transfusion?
Compatibility testing is important to prevent transfusion of incompatible donor red cells that might result in a haemolytic transfusion reaction. Crossmatching is used to confirm compatibility between the patient's blood (plasma) and the donor red cells
What causes a haemolytic transfusion reaction to occur?
- ABO/ Rh mismatch
- Red blood alloantibodies (non ABO) as a result of patient immunisation from previous pregnancy
- O group donor platelets with high titres of Anti-A or anti-B transfused with O recipient.
Describe the clinical manifestations associated with a haemolytic transfusion reaction.
fainting or dizziness
shortness of breath
What interventions are required should a haemolytic transfusion reaction occur?
Stop the transfusion immediately
Check and monitor vital signs
Maintain intravenous (IV) access (Do not flush existing line and use a new IV line if required)
Check the right pack has been given to the right patient
Notify your Medical Officer and Transfusion Service Provide
Fresh frozen plasma USE?
- Replacement of single coagulation deficiency
- Immediate reversal of wharfarin effect where prothrombin complex is not available
- Inherited coagulation inhibitor deficiency where specific concentrate is not available
Identify the storage temperature required for the following blood products:
Red Cells: ________________
Fresh frozen plasma, cryodepleted plasma, cryoprecipitate: _____________________
Red Cells: 2–6 ºC
Fresh frozen plasma, cryodepleted plasma, cryoprecipitate: At or below 25ºC
What is the maximum time allowed for red cell components to be at room temperature?
Red cells: 4hrs
Why should platelets not be transfused through a blood administration set that has been used for red cells?
Platelets must not be transfused through a blood administration set which has been used for red cells, as red cell debris in the inline filter may trap infused platelets.
Red cells Infusion Rate?
Platelets Infusion Rate?
Fresh frozen plasma Infusion Rate?
Cryoprecipitate Infusion Rate?
30-60 minutes per standard adult dose
When determining blood groups, which three antigens are the most important?
Compound Sodium Lactate (Hartmann’s):
Restoration of circulating volume and the
replacement of electrolyte deficits.
Good availabilty, safe to use, low cost and aids in buffering acidosis.
Rapid movement from the intravascular to the extravsacular space, leading to 3 or more times requirement replacement.
Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBC’s):
Restoration of intravsacular voulme and replacement of oxygen carrying capacity.
One unit of RBCs should increase the haemoglobin of a 70kg adult by approx 1g/l in the absence of volume overload or continuing blood loss.
Red cells require compatibility testings, risk of transmitting blood-borne pathogens and it should be warmed to prevent hypothermia.
Significant thrombocytopenia and for continued haemorrhage.
Compatibilty testing is not required.
Postexposure prophylaxis with ant-Rh immune globin should be considered following Rh+ platelet transfusion to an Rh- woman.
Albumin is a protein made by the liver, used to treat shock, burns, and low blood protein
high recovery rate
Lots of proteins bonds to albumins
is indicated as a source of water and electrolytes.
can be given to anyone
effective in diabetes
too much sodium
too much chloride
Platelets used for?
- Prophylaxis for surgery
- Thrombocytopenia → low platelet count
- Prevention of bleeding due to thrombocytopenia as in bone marrow failure
- One adult therapeutic dose (ATD) 30-60 minutes
Packed red blood cells used for?
- Used to increase O2 carrying ability of blood in cases such as anaemia, surgery and disorders with slow bleeding
- Exchange transfusion
- Red blood cell replacement due to acute blood loss with hypervolemia
- Must be within 4 hours
- 90-120 minutes per unit specifically to the pack that is specific to patient weight to prevent transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO)