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Flashcards in Blood vessel Deck (40):
1

BP =

cardiac output x total peripheral resistance

2

what are collateral arteries?

blood supply that develops overtime to support others that aren't working

3

what are functional end arteries?

ineffectual anastomoses

4

what is the tunica interna?

inner most layer of blood vessels
-simple squamous

5

what is tunica media?

thickest layer of blood vessels
-smooth muscle fibers

6

what is the tunic externa (adventitia)?

outer layer of blood vessels
-areolar CT (collagen and elastic fibers)

7

what is a vaso vasorum?

blood vessel that feeds a blood vessel

8

what autonomic innervation do peripheral blood vessels have?

ONLY sympathetic
-controlled by increase or decrease of sympathetic input
-relative vasodilation

9

how are veins different than arteries?

arteries have thicker tunica media
veins have thicker tunica externa

arteries lumen remains open
veins lumen may collapse

10

what is a sinus?

thin walled venous vessel without valves

11

do you have perfusion during diastole?

yes, when elastic arteries recoil after being filled

12

when do you use MAP?

iCU heart medicine

13

what is arteriosclerosis?

stiffening of the arteries that occurs with age

14

which type of vessel contributes most to blood pressure?

arterioles

15

what is the job of the arterioles?

regulates blood flow into the capillary beds

16

what is the relationship between flow (F) and pressure (P) and resistance (R)

INC F = INC P
INC F = DEC R

17

when would you have active hyperemia?

when increased metabolism is present

18

what local factors would cause arteriolar smooth muscle relaxation?

decreased oxygen
increased CO2
increased H+
increased adenosine
increased K+
increased eicosanoids
increased bradykinin
increased NO
increase osmotically active products

19

what are eicosanoids?

prostaglandins and leukokines

20

where would active hyperemia be needed most?

skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
glands

21

what is the idea of flow autoregulation?

homeostasis of the blood flow in the arteriole that supplies that particular organ

22

what is a myogenic response?

when a vessel stretches it automatically contracts

23

what causes a myogenic response?

changes in Ca movement in the smooth muscle

24

what is a continuous capillary?

intercellular clefts
tight junctions
found in skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, skin, lungs, CNS
***most common type

25

what is a fenestrated capillary?

contains pores along with intercellular clefts
found in kidney (glomerulus) , microvilli, choroid plexus, ciliary body of the eye and glands

26

what is a sinusoid capillary?

large intercellular clefts and discontinuous capillaries, interrupted basement membrane
found in red bone marrow, spleen**, liver, adenohypophysis, parathyroid, adrenal

27

when does a venule become a vein?

when it reaches diameter of 100 micrometers

28

which are the peripheral veins?

those that are outside the chest cavity

29

where is most of the blood at any given time?

venous system (64%)

30

what four things cause venous blood to flow?

valves
skeletal muscle contraction
respiratory contractions
pressure gradient between venous system and RA

31

what is the function of bulk flow?

distribution of the extracellular fluid volume

32

where is most of the fluid in the body?

intracellular

33

where is most of the extracellular fluid?

interstitial fluid

34

what is net filtration pressure?

difference between capillary pressure and interstitial fluid
= 10mmHg at the artery end
=-9 mmHg at the venous edn

35

what causes edema/ascites?

lack of albumin causes fluid to stay outside the plasma and not get sucked back in

36

where are baroreceptors located?

aortic arch
carotid sinus

37

what CN do baroreceptors use to communicate?

CN IX and X

38

where do parasympathetic fibers go to the heart?

SA and AV node

39

what is the response when baroreceptors are stretched?

increased para sympathetic (lower heart rate)
decreased sympathetic (normalize blood vessel diameter)

40

what is the response when baroreceptors decrease stretch?

decrease parasympathetic
increase sympathetic (travel to SA, AV and myocardial cells, peripheral blood vessels-alpha1 receptor)

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