Blood Vessels & Blood Pressure (Cardiovascular Info) Flashcards Preview

Honors Anatomy & Physiology > Blood Vessels & Blood Pressure (Cardiovascular Info) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Vessels & Blood Pressure (Cardiovascular Info) Deck (32):
1

Blood vessels
-functions (3)

FUNCTIONS: -transport blood through body
-exchange of substances btwn blood & body tissue cells
-diffuse of oxygen and nutrients from blood to tissue cells and waste products from cell to blood

2

percent of blood carried by vessels (5)

-systemic veins and venules (64%) (deoxygenated-> get quickly oxygenized)
-systemic arteries and arterioles (13%)
-pulmonary vessels (9%)
-heart (7%)
-systemic capillaries (7%)

3

type of vessels

arteries-> arterioles-> capillaries-> venules-> veins-> back to heart

4

arteries
def? description? controlled by? cause (2)?

carry oxygen rich blood away from heart
thick walls, 3 tunic (layers) surround a lumen (hollow tube)
controlled by ANS & local chemicals
smooth muscle in walls cause:
-vasoconstriction
-vasodilation

5

vasoconstriction in arteries

contraction (lumen diam. narrows)
(sympathetic)

6

vasodilation in arteries

relaxation (luman diam. enlarges)
(parasympathetic)

7

arterioles
description? location? function?

almost microscopic
branches from small arteries into tissues
REGULATE BLOOD PRESSURE & BLOOD FLOW TO CAPILLARIES

8

Capillaries
description? what occurs? how many? contain?

(blood flow-slower in cap., single layer, farther from heart-slow down, flows back quicker-faster back to heart bc want oxygen)
-thin walls, microscopic
-blood cells move in singe file
-20 billion from extensive network
-contain SPHINCTERS

9

Sphincters in capillaries
def? function?

SPHINCTERS (smooth muscle rings)-control direction of blood flow (act like valves, like butt hole)
-function: exchange of nutrients & wastes btwn blood and tissue fluid

10

venules
description? (4)

microscopic, thinner walls
low-pressure (blood back to heart)
carry blood away from capillaries
larger diameter than arterioles

11

veins
def? description? what helps?

carry oxygen poor blood from tissues to heart
thinner walls & larger lumen than arteries
can expand
largest blood reservoir in body
skeletal & respiratory muscles help blood movement (squeeze to push blood back up)
contain VALVES (prevent back flow)

12

vein structure (3)

tunica interna
tunia media
tunica externa

13

tunica interna

(inner layer)
simple squamous & basement membrane

14

tunia media

smooth muscle

15

tunica externa

(outer layer)
-elastic, tough, & stretchy
-thickest part of vein

16

Vascular Resistance
def? depends on (3)?

opposition to blood flow
Depends on: 1) Lumen Diameter
2) Blood viscosity
3) Total blood vessel length

17

(Vascular Resistance)
1) Lumen Diameter

(Vascular Resistance)
small lumen-> greater resistance

18

(Vascular Resistance)
2) Blood viscosity

(Vascular Resistance)
ratio of RBC's to plasma volume
-high viscosity (more RBC's)-> greater resistance

19

(Vascular Resistance)
3) Total blood vessel length

(Vascular Resistance)
longer blood vessel-> greater resistance
-obesity- additional blood vessels in adipose tissue
-400 miles added for each 2.2 lbs of fat

20

Blood pressure
how is it generated?

contraction of ventricles generates blood pressure (BP)
-pressure exerted on walls of arteries

21

what is BP determined by? (3)

-cardiac output (CO)
-blood volume
-vascular resistance

22

systolic BP

highest pressure in arteries during left ventricle systole
(systole=contraction)

23

diastolic BP

-highest pressure in arteries during ventricular diastole
-normal BP is 120/80 mm Hg for adults
(diastole=relaxation)

24

measuring BP
where? device? sounds called?

measured in BRACHIAL ARTERY of left arm
-device used: sphygmomanometer
-sounds heard called: Korotkoff Sounds

25

measuring systolic BP
what is it? how do you know?

-first sound heard through stethoscope
-force of BP on arterial walls just after ventricular contraction
(top of equation ex: 120)

26

measure diastolic BP

-when no sound is heard through stethoscope
-force exerted by blood remaining in arteries during ventricular relaxation
(bottom of equation ex: 80)

27

pulse
def? equal to?

alternate expanding & recoil of arterial walls
-equal to ventricle contractions

28

pulse
can be detected in which 5 places?

radial artery - wrist
carotid artery - lower neck
brachial artery - elbow
femoral artery - groin
popliteal artery - behind knee
(use 2 fingers, never thumb)

29

names of the major veins and what they supply blood to?
(6) (2)

Right jugular - head & neck
Right subclavian - arms
(Superior vena cava)
Right hepatic - liver
Coronary sinus- heart
Left renal - kidney
(Inferior vena cava)
Left iliac - legs

30

names of the major arteries and what they supply blood to?

carotid - brain
left subclavian - arms (bc clavicle)
mesenteric - intestine
left iliac - legs
right renal - kidney
common hepatic - liver & spleen
coronary - heart

31

lumen
definition??

the hollow space through which blood flows

32

vein structure vs artery structure

vein- thinner walls and larger lumen than arteries