Blood Vessels & Circulation Flashcards Preview

HAP > Blood Vessels & Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Vessels & Circulation Deck (68):
1

Where do chemical & gaseous exchanges between blood & interstitial fluid occur?

Across capillary walls

2

Any force that opposes blood flow is called...

Resistance

3

Which mechanism respond to changes in arterial pressure or blood gas levels at specific sites?

Neural mechanisms

4

After serious hemorrhaging...

Thirst increases

5

As it leaves trunk & enters thigh, external iliac artery becomes...

Femoral artery

6

Into which chamber/structure do 4 pulmonary veins enter?

Into which chamber/structure do the four pulmonary veins enter?

7

Which vessels fuse to form basilar artery after entering cranium via foramen magnum?

Vertebral arteries

8

Blood returning from placenta flows through umbilical vein before reaching developing...

Liver

9

An age-related change involving circulatory system is constriction or blockage of peripheral veins that occurs as result of...

A thrombus (stationary blood clot)

10

Which system provides calcium needed for normal cardiac muscle contraction?

Skeletal system

11

Difference between systolic & diastolic pressures is...which declines as distance from heart increases.

Pulse pressure

12

List 4 important functions of capillary exchange.

Communication: maintains constant communication between plasma & interstitial fluid. Distribution: speeds distribution of nutrients, hormones, & dissolved gases throughout tissues. Transport: assists movement of insoluble lipids & tissue proteins that cannot cross capillary walls. Defense: flushes bacterial toxins & other chemical stimuli to lymphatic tissues & organs responsible for providing immunity to disease.

13

In the functioning of respiratory pump, increased pressure that forces air out of lungs during exhalation compresses which vessel, pushing blood into right atrium?

Vena cavae

14

Tendency for water & small solutes to move out of blood is greatest at...

Start of capillary

15

Discuss causes & effects of turbulence within blood vessels.

Blood usually flows through vessel smoothly, w slowest flow near walls, & fastest flow at center of vessel. High flow rates, irregular surfaces caused by injury/disease processes, or sudden changes in vessel diameter upset smooth flow, creating eddies & swirls. Turbulence slows flow & increases resistance.

16

Factor that helps blood flow overcome gravity is...in which contraction of skeletal muscles near vein compresses it, helping push blood toward heart.

Muscular compression

17

Factors that promote dilation of...are called vasodilators, whereas those that stimulate their constriction are called vasoconstrictors.

Precapillary sphincters

18

Define chemoreceptor reflexes, & describe locations & functions of chemoreceptors involved.

Chemoreceptor reflexes respond to changes in carbon dioxide, oxygen, or pH in blood & cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The chemoreceptors involved are sensory neurons found in the carotid bodies (located in neck near carotid sinuses) & in aortic bodies (near arch of aorta), where they monitor chemical composition of arterial blood. Additional chemoreceptors on surface of medulla oblongata monitor composition of CSF.

19

Cardioacceleratory centers...

Stimulate sympathetic neurons innervating atrioventricular (AV) node, sinoatrial (SA) node, & general myocardium

20

Which hormone is formed in blood following renin release by kidneys in response to decreased blood pressure?

Angiotensin II

21

Describe hormonal event that occurs when blood pressure (BP) falls or when oxygen content of blood becomes abnormally low.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is released by kidneys when BP falls or blood oxygen content becomes abnormally low. EPO stimulates red blood cell production, which results in elevation of blood volume and improvement of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.

22

Receptors that monitor degree of stretch in walls of expandable organs, called...initiate autonomic reflexes that adjust cardiac output & peripheral resistance.

Baroreceptors

23

Which hormone is released in response to decrease in blood volume?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

24

Loss of blood volume causes drop in cardiac output, but...quickly improves venous return & restores cardiac output to normal levels by mobilizing venous reserve.

Vasomotor center

25

Describe effects of sympathetic activation as short-term response to decline in blood pressure.

Sympathetic activation assists by constricting muscular arteries & arterioles, which elevates blood pressure. It also causes secretion of epinephrine (E) & norepinephrine (NE) by adrenal medullae. At same time, ADH is released by posterior pituitary gland, & fall in blood pressure in kidneys causes release of renin, initiating activation of angiotensin II. E & NE increase cardiac output, & in combination w ADH & angiotensin II, they cause powerful vasoconstriction that elevates blood pressure & improves peripheral blood flow.

26

During exercise, blood supply to which organ remain unaffected?

Brain

27

As exercise begins, several interrelated changes occur, including...

Increased cardiac output & increased venous return.

28

List cause & 6 basic signs/symptoms of circulatory shock.

Hypotension, w systolic pressures below 90 mm Hg. Pale, cool, and moist ("clammy") skin, due to peripheral vasoconstriction & sympathetic activation of sweat glands. Confusion & disorientation, caused by drop in blood pressure at brain. Rise in heart rate & rapid, weak pulse. Cessation of urination due to reduced blood flow to kidneys, which slows or stops urine production. Drop in blood pH (acidosis), due to lactic acid generated in oxygen-deprived tissues.

29

After serious hemorrhaging, several days may pass before blood volume returns to normal. Over this period...
& aldosterone promote fluid retention and reabsorption at kidneys, preventing further reductions in blood volume.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

30

Which hormone targets bone marrow to stimulate maturation of red blood cells, thereby increasing blood volume & improving oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues?

Erythropoietin (EPO)

31

What is composed of vessels that transport blood between heart & lungs, whereas systemic circuit is composed of vessels that transport oxygenated blood & nutrients to all other organs & tissues.

Pulmonary circuit

32

Compare & contrast distribution of vessels on left & right sides of body.

Distribution of arteries & veins on left & right sides of body is typically identical. Only exception is near heart, where large vessels connect to atria or ventricles.

33

Systemic circuit begins at...& ends at...

Left ventricle & right atrium.

34

Which cardiovascular circuit transports oxygenated blood to organs & tissues other than lungs?

Systemic circuit

35

Under what circumstance(s) may single vessel undergo name changes?

Single vessel may undergo several name changes as it crosses specific anatomical boundaries. For example, external iliac artery becomes femoral artery as it leaves trunk & enters thigh.

36

Regarding functional patterns of blood vessels...often reduce effects of temporary or permanent occlusion of single blood vessel.

Anastomoses

37

As oxygenated blood leaves alveolar capillaries, it enters...

Venules

38

Why do color-coded diagrams & models show pulmonary veins in red & pulmonary arteries in blue?

In color-coded diagrams & models, circulatory structures carrying oxygenated blood are depicted as red. Pulmonary veins are red because they carry oxygenated blood (from the lungs to the left atrium), & pulmonary arteries are blue because they carry deoxygenated blood (from right atrium to lungs).

39

Briefly describe branching of pulmonary vessels entering lungs.

Left & right pulmonary arteries enter lungs before branching repeatedly, giving rise to successively smaller arteries. Smallest branches, pulmonary arterioles, provide blood to capillary networks that surround small air pockets/alveoli.

40

Blood entering right atrium has just returned from peripheral...beds, where oxygen was released & carbon dioxide was absorbed.

Capillary

41

Blood entering right atrium has just returned from peripheral...beds, where oxygen was released & carbon dioxide was absorbed.

Capillary

42

Instead of traveling directly to inferior vena cavae, blood leaving capillaries supplied by celiac, superior, & inferior mesenteric arteries flows to liver through...system.

Hepatic portal

43

Describe origination & distribution of arteries of aortic arch.

3 elastic arteries: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, & left subclavian artery (originate along aortic arch & deliver blood to head, neck, shoulders, & upper limbs. Brachiocephalic trunk ascends for short distance before branching to form right common carotid artery & right subclavian artery.

44

Which artery supplies thumb side of right forearm?

Right radial artery

45

Which venous tributary collects blood from lateral surface of upper limb?

Cephalic vein

46

Discuss venous return from chest (trunk).

The axillary vein, which drains the upper limb, continues into the trunk; at the level of the first rib, it becomes the subclavian vein. After traveling a short distance inside the thoracic cavity, the subclavian vein meets and merges with the external and internal jugular veins of that side. This fusion creates the brachiocephalic vein, also known as the innominate vein. Near the heart, the two brachiocephalic veins (one from each side of the body) combine to create the superior vena cava (SVC). The SVC receives blood from the thoracic body wall through the azygos vein before arriving at the right atrium.

47

Discuss venous return from chest (trunk).

The axillary vein, which drains the upper limb, continues into the trunk, at the level of the first rib, it becomes the subclavian vein. After traveling a short distance inside the thoracic cavity, the subclavian vein meets and merges with the external and internal jugular veins of that side. This fusion creates the brachiocephalic vein, also known as the innominate vein. Near the heart, the two brachiocephalic veins (one from each side of the body) combine to create the superior vena cava (SVC). The SVC receives blood from the thoracic body wall through the azygos vein before arriving at the right atrium.

48

Which tributary or tributaries of inferior vena cavae collects blood from veins in lower limb?

External iliac veins

49

Which vessel supplies inferior surface of diaphragm?

Inferior phrenic artery

50

Which vessel supplies inferior surface of diaphragm?

Inferior phrenic artery

51

In fetal circulation, an interatrial opening called...is associated w elongated flap that acts as valve.

Foramen ovale

52

Explain how collapsed state of lungs affects fetal circulation.

With the lungs collapsed, capillaries there are compressed, and little blood flows through the lungs. During diastole, blood enters the right atrium and flows into the right ventricle, but it also passes into the left atrium through the foramen ovale. About 25 percent of the blood arriving at the right atrium bypasses the pulmonary circuit in this way. In addition, over 90 percent of the blood leaving the right ventricle passes through the ductus arteriosus and enters the systemic circuit rather than continuing to the lungs.

53

Blood returning from placenta flows through single umbilical vein before reaching developing...

Liver

54

Which structure allows fetal blood to flow freely from right atrium to left atrium?

Foramen ovale

55

What circulatory changes occur at birth?

When an infant takes its first breath, the lungs expand, and so do the pulmonary vessels. Within a few seconds, the smooth muscles in the ductus arteriosus contract, isolating the pulmonary and aortic trunks, and blood begins flowing through the pulmonary circuit.
As pressures rise in the left atrium, the valvular flap closes the foramen ovale. In adults, the interatrial septum bears a shallow depression, the fossa ovalis, which marks the site of the foramen ovale. The remnants of the ductus arteriosus persist as a fibrous cord, the ligamentum arteriosum.

56

Remnants of ductus arteriosus persist as fibrous cord known as...

Ligamentum arteriosum

57

In blood vessels, age-related changes are often related to...a thickening & toughening of arterial walls.

Arteriosclerosis

58

Discuss 3 age-related changes that occur in blood.

Age-related changes in blood may include decreased hematocrit. Constriction/blockage of peripheral veins by formation of thrombus (stationary blood clot), which can become detached, pass through heart, & become wedged in small artery (most often in lungs, causing pulmonary embolism). Pooling of blood in leg veins because valves are not working effectively.

59

What may be deposited on weakened vascular walls as one ages, increasing risk of stroke or myocardial infarction?

Calcium salts

60

An age-related change in heart is replacement of damaged cardiac muscle cells by...

Scar tissue

61

What age-related functional change can occur in inelastic walls of arteries, & what are possible effects of that change?

Inelastic walls of arteries become less tolerant of sudden pressure increases, which can lead to localized dilation, or aneurysm, whose rupture may cause stroke, myocardial infarction, or massive blood loss (depending on vessel involved).

62

Age-related changes in heart include reduction in max cardiac output, & changes in activities of...cells & conducting cells.

Nodal

63

Most extensive physiological communication occurs between cardiovascular system &...

Lymphatic

64

Briefly describe functional relationship between cardiovascular & nervous systems.

Nervous system controls patterns of circulation in peripheral tissues, modifies heart rate, regulates blood pressure, & releases ADH. Meanwhile, endothelial cells of cardiovascular system maintain blood-brain barrier & help generate CSF.

65

Which endocrine system hormone stimulates cardiac muscles?

Epinephrine

66

Cardiovascular system transports which hormone to osteoblasts & osteoclasts?

Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin.

67

Briefly describe functional relationship between cardiovascular & integumentary systems.

Integumentary system has mast cells that trigger localized changes in blood flow & capillary permeability. Cardiovascular system delivers immune cells to injury sites in integumentary system, seals breaks in skin via clotting response, transports toxins away from infection sites, & provides heat.

68

For all systems, cardiovascular system delivers oxygen, hormones, nutrients, & WBCs, removes carbon dioxide & metabolic wastes, & transfers...

Heat