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Flashcards in BMB 2 Deck (30):
1

Reactive attachment disorder

child is withdrawn, due to neglect, often linked to orphanages etc

2

Disinhibited social engagement disorder

Interacts with anyone incl strangers (diminished checking back when walking away), due to neglect, links to high risk groups, presents like williams

3

ASD issues with cognitive, joint attention skills, face processing etc

cog- weak central coherence (difficulty predicting seq of events, understanding big picture, playing pretend), problems initiating joint attention where someone points at something to draw attention to it, get someone to do something eg balloon etc (BEST PREDICTOR OF ASD) -look all over face rather than eye contact -issues w theory of mind/ mind blindness, showing empathy, responsiveness to others (do show attachment to caregivers)

4

ASD neurobio

brain growth abnormalities in various structures -increased local connections but decreased distal (pruning issue)

5

What is the biggest buffer of stress for a kid?

supportive caregiver

6

Epigenetics that can be heritable from ACEs (adverse childhood experiences)?

Methylation model histone modification, and telomere shortening (more telomerase in pts with high ACE and premature aging)

7

Best model for primary care approach to ACEs?

Proactive (better than reactive), screen prenatal patients, screen early adolescents, screen everyone to understand chronic dis risks

8

PAPEZ CIRCUIT fxn and pathway?

for emotional behavior! (core of limbic system) MACH 1: HC > mammillary body (via fornix) > ant thalamic nucl > cingulate gyrus > HC

9

YAKOVLEV'S CIRCUIT fxn and path?

discovered later, included basolateral structures for more visceral aspects of emotion (command center for 4 f's) DORSOMEDIAL thal mucl > orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) > temporal pole of amygdala (via uncinated fasc) > HC, connects it to papez's circuit and also transmits signal back to thalamus to begin again

10

structures of the limbic sys include?

hypothalamus

amygdala

septal nuclei

cingulate gyrus

hippocampal formation

11

hypothal extends from

lamina terminalis (ant) to mamm bodies (post)

12

amygdala location and divisions?

medial aspect of temporal pole near uncus (kinda above/in front of HC?)

div into: corticomedial for olfaction, central for autonomic responses, and basolateral for emotional attachments

13

septal nuclei

near/under septum pellucidum of brain, bulges near bottom of ventricles, above hypothal

14

cingulate gyrus location and divisions

mesocortex near CC (the gyrus on top of it)

anterior portion- drive and emotion

posterior portion- attention, awareness, memo

15

what structures is the HC formation made of? subdivisions

made of subiculum, dentate gyrus, and HC proper

-divided into 4 sections based on histo: CA1-4 (CA4 more inward into curly part)

16

what are the "4 different elements of the limbic system"?

the CINGULUM, FORNIX, MAMMILLOTHALAMIC TRACT, and PERFORANT PATHWAY

17

cingulum connections?

subcallosal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, HF

18

fornix connections?

HF, septal area, basal forebrin, thalamus, mamm bodies

19

mammillothalamic tract connects (intuitive)

mamm bodiy, ant nucl of thalamus

20

perforant pathway fxn and connects

spatial memo path

HF

E-RC (enterohinal)

21

22

where are memories stored and where do they travel when recalled?

stored in cortex, and travel to enterohinal cortex then HF

23

types of memo

declarative- explicit like episodic and semantic

nondeclarative- implicit like skills

and sensory memo

24

4 stages of memo formation

encoding, storage, retrieval and recogniition

25

long term potentiation pathway

NMDA rec usu blocked by Mg2+

but stmulation by glutamate will force off Mg ions and allow calc to enter, changes post syn membranes of neurons leading to LTP, incr EPSPs and more connections to other elements in HC (CA1-4)

26

FUNCTIONS OF

amygdala

septal nuclei

cingulate gyrus

hypothalamus

hippocampal formation

frontal lobes

amygdala affects attachement of emotion (eg see actor and feel good)

septal nucl MAYBE deals w. aggression

cingulate gyrus affects cog and beh, lesions here can reduce drive (abulia), assoc with psych disorders like OCD, tourettes, depr (stim subgenul gyrus may help intractble depr)

hypothal- feeding disorders and aggro, innate

HF- memo formation, smell/olfaction in memo

frontal lobes- modulate emo drive, inhibition

27

what can lesion to cingulate gyrus do?

produce abulia (reduce drive, since cing gyrus affects cog/beh), and affect psych disorders (but can stim subgenual gyrus to help with depr)

28

KLUVER-BUCY (monkeys) / PICK'S (humans)

where is lesion/ sx?

lesion to bilat ant temporal lobe

decr aggro, limited fear resp, indiscriminate sexual beh, oral fixtion, distractibility

29

KORSAKOFF'S

sx, cause

from alcoholism (thiamine def)

can cause ataxia, confusion, ophthalmoplegia, have to create stories to fill in memo gaps, anterograde memo issues (issues w new memo)

 

30

another name for the limbic system?

rhinencephalon