Body Composition Flashcards Preview

EPHE 444 > Body Composition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Composition Deck (98):
1

What are 3 reasons for assessing body comp

- Classify disease risk
- Sport performance
- Weight management

2

What are 7 common methods of measuring body comp

- BMI
- Waist circumference
- Other anthropometric measurements
- Densitometry
- Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry
- Bioelectrical impedance
- Skinfold measurements

3

Which methods of measuring body compare used by CSEP

BMI
Waist circumference

4

What methods are used to calculate %body fat

- Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry
- Bioelectrical impedance
- Skinfold measurements

5

What is Body mass index

Indirect measure of body fatness -

6

How do you calculate BMI

kg/m^2

7

What does BMI not account for

Composition of fat mass vs FFM

8

What is the correlation coefficient of BMI with hydrostatic weighing

0.70

9

What are some of the downsides of BMI

Possible misclassifications of underweight, overweight, and obese status

10

A BMI of <18.5 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

underweight
increased

11

A BMI of 18.5-24.9 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

normal weight
Least

12

A BMI of 25-29.9 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

Overweight
Increased

13

A BMI of 30-34.9 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

Obese class 1
High

14

A BMI of 35-39.9 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

obese class 2
Very high

15

A BMI of >40 has a BMI category of _____ and a BMI risk of ____

obese class 3
extremely high

16

Waist circumference is often used along with _____

BMI

17

What is waist circumference

Indirect assessment of abdominal adiposity

18

An increased waist circumference is associated with...

increased risk of disease

19

Where is the waist?

Iliac crest or level of belly button or at the narrowist part or the mimd point between the lowest rib and the iliac crest

20

What should the arm position be when measuring waist circumference

up across the chest

21

What should the tester position be when measuring waist circumference

off to the side - want to make sure tape is horizontal

22

When should you take the waist circumference measurement

at end of expiration

23

What are the pro of waist circumference

quick and easy to administer - dont need a lot of training

24

What are the con of waist circumference

Not giving %body fat
Variation in body shape

25

What is classified as high for WC for men? for women?

M >90
W >80

26

What is classified as very high for WC for men? for women?

M >100
W > 90

27

What is classified as extremely high for WC for men? for women?

M >110
W >105

28

What is the body mass index and BMI-WC range for a CSEP health risk rating of "least"

BMI - 18-24.9
BMI - WC - Normal weight & healthy WC

29

What is the body mass index and BMI-WC range for a CSEP health risk rating of "Increased"

BMI - <18,5 and 25-29.9
CMI-WC - Underweight

30

What is the body mass index and BMI-WC range for a CSEP health risk rating of "high"

BMI - 30-34.9
BMI-WC - Normal weight & unhealthy WC

31

What is the body mass index and BMI-WC range for a CSEP health risk rating of "Very high "

BMI - 35-39.9
BMI-WC - Overweight & unhealthy WC

32

What is the body mass index and BMI-WC range for a CSEP health risk rating of "extremely high"

BMI- >40
BMI-WC - obese & unhealthy WC

33

What type of athlete may have a BMI in the overweight category but a WC below the cutoff. are they at an increase health risk?

Resistance trained clients

34

What is anthropometry

measurement of the size and proportion of the human body

35

What are positive of anthropometric methods

- Simple
- Inexpensive
- Well suited for large epidemiological surveys and clinical purposes
- Minimal skill and training required

36

What are common anthropometric measures

- Girth measurements
- Widths
- Breadths
- Bone length

37

What are some limitations to skinfold measurements

- Client sensitivity to having SKF measured
- Substantial intra and inter-tester variability in SKF thickness
- Time requirements for training, practice, and accurate administration
- Not very reliable, lots of room for error

38

What is used for classification of body fatness

Relative body fat
% of fat mass to % of fat free mass

39

What is the healthy range of % body fat for men? what is considered obese?

teens
>22-25%

40

What is the healthy range of % body fat for women? what is considered obese?

twenties
> 35-38%

41

What is densitometry

estimates body density by determining the ratio of body mass to body volume (BD = BM/BV)

42

What are two methods of densitometry?

1. Hydrostatic weighing (Hydrodensitometry)
2. Air displacement plethysmography (Bod pod)

43

How does hydrostatic weighing work

Compares dry land weight to underwater weight

44

Hydrostatic weighing is the criterion measure used for...

development of %BF prediction equations and validation of field measurements

45

Is a leaner person going to have a higher or lower underwater weight compare to a person weighing the same but with a different body comp

More dense you sink (a leaner person will weigh more underwater)
if you are more fat you will sink less

46

What does hydrostatic weighing measure

body volume

47

Hydrostatic weighing measures body volume, used with body weight to calculate ____

body density

48

What is the equation for body volume in hydrostatic weighing

((Dry water weight)-(underwater weight)/(density of the water)) - (RV + 100ml)

49

What does RV stand for

Residual volume (remaining volume of air in lungs)

50

What are the pros to hydrostatic weighing

Was once considered gold standard - very accurate

51

What are the cons of hydrostatic weighing

Uncomfortable for participants to do
Estimations for some values

52

What is the Siri equation for converting body density into %BF

%BF = (4.95/BD - 4.50) x 100

53

What is the Brozek equation for converting body density to %BF

%BF = (4.57/BD - 4.142) x 100

54

The _____ is the foundation for many technique to measure %BF

two component model

55

What is the two component model

Body mass = Fat mass (FM) + fat-free mass (FFM)

56

What is the density for FM

0.901 g/cc

57

What is the density of FFM

1.100 g/cc

58

When would someone have a lower density of FFM

osteoporoic
Variation in race

59

What is the proportional contribution to FFM by water

73.8%

60

What is the proportional contribution to FFM by minerals

6.8%

61

What is the proportional contribution to FFM by protein

19.4%

62

FFM density can vary substantially according to..

age
gender
physical activity level
ethnicity
relative proportion of water and mineral and level of fatness

63

When does the two component model work well

when underlying assumptions about FFM are met

64

What are multicomponent models

Improve estimation of %BF by replacing reference body with a population specific body that takes into account age, gender, ethnicity, and level of physical activity

65

What is air displacement plethysmography

BV by air displacement instead of water

66

How does air displacement plethysmography work

2 chambers separated by a fibreglass wall. Front = client sits. Back = reference chamber.
Compares volume and pressure of front chamber with the reference chamber to determine the volume of the individual

67

What are the pros of the bod pod

- Quick
- require less technician skill
- Requires minimal client cooperation
- Reliable (r = 0.9-0.96)

68

What are the cons of the bod pod

- Size restriction because of chamber size
- may be more suitable in clinical settings
- Not appropriate with hydrophobic clients
- must have approve clothing and swim cap
- No beards

69

How does dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry work

- Uses X-rays and a 3-component model of assessment
- Bone mineral mass + bone free lean tissue + fat mass = total body weight
- Looks at how x-ray travels through different body substances

70

What is the attenuation of X-rays dependent on ?

Thickness
Density
Composition of tissues
- Different measure of X-ray strength depending on whether it is travelling through bone, muscle or fat

71

What are the pros of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

- Gaining recognition as criterion measure
- Safe - low radiation
- Quick ~20 mins
- Requires minimal client cooperation
- Estimates other components not obtained by densitometry and provides regional and segmental composition
Reliable - R>0.95

72

What are the cons of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

- Each manufacturer comes with own model and software version
- May require licensed technician to run scan
- Not recommended for pregnant women
- Some clients may not fit on dimensions of bed

73

What are two common field methods of body composition

- Bioelectrical impedance analysis
- Skinfold

74

What are pros for field methods of body composition assessment

- more practical for estimating body composition compared to laboratory methods
- Must closely follow standardized testing procedures

75

How does bioelectrical impedance work

measures resistance to electric current to estimate %BF

76

A muscle cell is __% water

75%

77

A fat cell is ___% water

5-13%

78

Water ____ resistance and currents move ___

reduces
easily

79

Dehydration or adipose tissue ___ current

slows current

80

Does current move quicker through lean or fat tissue

lean

81

___ determines resistance of tissues to flow of electrical current

hydration level

82

What is an important consideration for bioelectrical impedance

To follow pre-test guidelines - water intake!

83

What are the pros of bioelectrical impedance

- Fairly inexpensive
- Easily administered and minimal training required
- Quick - provides results instantly

84

What are the cons of bioelectrical impedance

- Variability (3-8%)
- pre-test guidelines
- Electrical pathway? Ankle to hand vs. ankle to ankle

85

Skin fold measurements are correlated with body density from hydrostatic weighing, what is the coefficient of correlation?

0.76

86

SKF indirectly measure...

Thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue

87

What are 7 common sites to take skinfolds?

- Subscapular
- Suprailiac
- Abdominal
- Chest
- Arm
- Thigh
- Medial calf

88

SKF is a good measure of _____

subcutaneous fat

89

There is a strong correlation between 12-site SKF and ____

MRI

90

Fat distribution (subcutaneous vs. internal) is ___ for all individuals within each gender

similar

91

Leaner individuals will have a higher proportion of ____

internal fat

92

There is a relationship between sum of SKF and

body density

93

The sum of several SKF can be used to...

estimate total body fat -

94

It is estimated that ___ of body fat is subcutaneous

1/3

95

What side of the body do you take SKF measurements on

the right side of the body

96

How long do you take the skinfold reading for

3 seconds after releasing caliper tension

97

What are the pros of skinfolds

- Relatively inexpensive
- Easily administered by trained individuals
- Can estimate %BF
- Reliable (r=0.9) with experienced testers

98

What are the cons to skinfold testing?

- requires practice
- Limited population - overfat, fascia, etc.
- Variability in equations