Body Position & Integumentary Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Body Position & Integumentary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Body Position & Integumentary Deck (235):
1

Term

Definition

2

anter/o

front

3

caudo/o

tail (downward)

4

cephal/0

head (upward)

5

dist/o

away (from the point of attachment of a body part)

6

dors/o

back

7

infer/o

below

8

later/o

side

9

medi/o

middle

10

poster/o

back, behind

11

proxim/o

near (the point of attachment of a body part)

12

super/o

above

13

ventr/o

belly (front)

14

bi-

two

15

uni-

one

16

ad

toward

17

ior

pertaining to

18

caudad

toward the tail (downward)

19

cephalad

toward the head (upward)

20

lateral (lat)

pertaining to the side

21

medial (med)

pertaining to the middle

22

unilateral

pertaining to one side (only)

23

bilateral

pertaining to two sides

24

mediolateral

pertaining to the middle and to the side

25

distal

pertaining to away (from the point of attachment of a body part)

26

proximal

pertaining to near (to the point of attachment of a body part)

27

inferior (inf)

pertaining to below

28

superior (sup)

pertaining to above

29

caudal

pertaining to the tail (similar to inferior in most instances related to human anatomy)

30

cephalic

pertaining to the head

31

anterior (ant)

pertaining to the front

32

posterior

pertaining to the back

33

dorsal

pertaining to the back

34

ventral

pertaining to the belly (front)

35

anteroposterior (AP)

pertaining to the front and to the back

36

posteroanterior (PA)

pertaining to the back and to the front

37

frontal or coronal

vertical field passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions

38

midsagittal

vertical field running through the body from front to back at the midline, dividin the body equally into right and left halves

39

parasagittal

vertical field running through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left sides (any plane parallel to the midsagittal plane)

40

transverse

horizontal field dividing the body into superior and inferior portions

41

midline

an imaginary line that seperates the body, or body parts, into halves. In medical language, midline is used as a common reference point.

42

Fowler position

semi-sitting position with slight elevation of the knees

43

lithotomy position

lying on back with legs raised and feet in stirrups

44

orthopnea position

sitting erect in a chair or sitting upright in bed supported by pillows behind the head and chest (also called orthopneic position)

45

prone position

lying on abdomen, facing downward (head may be turned to one side)

46

recumbent position

lying down in any position

47

Sims position

lying on left side with right knee drawn up and with left arm drawn begind parallel to the back

48

supine position

lying on back, facing upward

49

Trendelenburg position

lying on back with body tilted so that the head is lower than the feet

50

high Fowler

upright position at approximately 90 degrees

51

Fowler

indicating an angle between 45 degrees and 60 degrees

52

semi-Fowler

30 degrees to 45 degrees

53

low Fowler

where the head is slightly elevated

54

umbilical region

around the navel (umbilicus)

55

lumbar regions

to the right and left of the umbilical region, near the waist

56

epigastric region

superior to the umbilical region, generally above the stomach

57

hypochondriac regions

to the right and left of the epigastric region

58

hypogastric region

inferior to the umbilical region

59

iliac regions

to the right and left of the hypogastric region, near the groin (also called inguinal regions)

60

umbilicus

derived from the Latin umbro (protuberant part of a shield) raised or depressed spot in the middle of anything

61

Hypochodriac

derived from the Greek hypo (under) and chondros (cartilage) Hippocrates referred to the region just below the cartilages of the ribs. People who experienced discomfort in this area but had no organic findings. Now, a person who falsely believes he or she has an illness is regerred to as a hypochodriac

62

Cyberchondria

emerged in 2000 as a term describing a pattern of using internet research to self diagnose symptoms, fueling health anxiety and worry

63

right upper quadrant (RUQ)

refers to the area encompassing the right lobe of the liver, the gallblader, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines

64

left upper quadrant (LUQ)

referes to the area encompassing the left lobe of the liver, the stomach, the spleen, part of the pancreas, and portions of the small and large intestines

65

right lower quadrant (RLQ)

refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the appendix, the right ureter, and the right ovary and uterine tube in women or the right spermatic duct in men

66

left lower quadrant (LLQ)

refers to the area encompassing portions of the small and large intestines, the left ureter, and the left ovary and uterine tube in women or the left spermatic duct in men

67

Temporal palpating

palpate over the temporal bone on each side of the head lateral to each eyebrow

68

Carotid palpating

palpate the anterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, just medial and inferior to the angle of the jaw. To avoid reduction of blood flow, do not palpate right and left carotid pulses simultaneously

69

Brachial palpating

palpate in the groove between the biceps and tricept, just medial to the biceps tendon

70

Radial palpating

palpate lateral and anterior side of wrist, proximal to the first metacarpal phalangeal joint

71

Femoral palpating

This pulse is inferior to the inquinal ligament; if the patient is obese, the pulse is found midway between anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle

72

Dorsalis pedis palpating

Lightly palpate the dorsal surface of the foot, with the foot slightly dorsiflexed

73

Posterior tibial palpating

This pulse is found posterior and slightly inferior to the medial malleolus of the ankle

74

epidermis

outer layer of the skin

75

keratin

horny, or cornified, layer composed of protein. It is contained in the hair, skin and nails

76

melanin

color, or pigmentation of the skin

77

dermis

inner layer of skin (also called the true skin)

78

sudoriferous (sweat) glands

tiny, coiled, tubular structures, that emerge through pores on the skin's surface and secrete sweat

79

sebaceous glands

secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis

80

hair

compressed, keratinized cells that arise from hair follicles, the sacs that enclose the hair fibers

81

nails

originate in the epidermis. Nails are found on the upper surface of the ends of the fingers and toes. The white area at the base of the nail is called the lunula or moon

82

cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o

skin

83

hidr/o

sweat

84

kerat/o

horny tissue, hard

85

onych/o, ungu/o

nail

86

seb/o

sebum (oil)

87

trich/o

hair

88

a

noun suffix, no meaning

89

coccus (pl. cocci)

berry-shaped (form of bacterium)

90

ectomy

exicision or surgical removal

91

ia

diseased or abnormal state, condition of

92

itis

inflammation

93

malacia

softening

94

opsy

view or, viewing

95

phagia

eating or swallowing

96

plasty

surgical repair

97

rrhea

flow, discharge

98

tome

instrument used to cut

99

dermatitis

inflammatino of the skin

100

dermatoconiosis

abnormal conditino of the skin caused by dust

101

dermatofibroma

fibrous tumor of the skin

102

hidradentitis

inflammation of a sweat gland

103

leiodermia

condition of smooth skin

104

onychocryptosis

abnormal condition of a hidden nail (also called ingrown nail)

105

leukoderma

white skin (white patches caused by depigmentation)

106

onychomalacia

softening of the nails

107

onychomycosis

eating the nails (nail biting)

108

pachyderma

thickening of the skin

109

paronychia (note the a from para has been dropped. The final vowel ina prefix may be dropped when the word to which it is added begins with a vowel.

dieased state around the nail

110

seborrhea

discharge of sebum (excessive)

111

trichomycosis

abnormal condition of a fungus in the hair

112

xeroderma

dry skin (a mild form of cutaneous disorder characterized by keratinization and noninflammatory scaling)

113

abrasion

scraping away of the skin by mechanical process or injury

114

abcess

localized collection of pus

115

acne

inflammatory disease of the skin involving the sabaceous glands and hair follicles

116

actinic keratosis

a precancerous skin condition of horny tissue formation that results from excessive exposure to sunlight. It may evolve into a squamous cell carcinoma.

117

albinism

congenital hereditary condition characterized by partial or total lack of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.

118

basal cell carcinoma

epithelial tumor arising from the epidermis. It seldom metastasizes but invades local tissue. Common in individuals who have had excessive sun exposure.

119

Kaposi sarcoma

a cancerous condition starting as purple or brown papules on the lower extremeties that spreads through the skin to the lymph nodes and internal orgrans. Frequently seen with AIDS

120

laceration

torn, ragged-edged wound

121

lesion

any visible change in tissue resulting from inury or disease. It is a broad term that includes sores, wounds, ulcers and tumors.

122

MRSA infection

Invasion of body tissue by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a strain of common bacteria that has developed resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics. It can produce skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes bloodstream infections and pneumonia, which can be fatal if not treated. MRSA is quite common in hospitals and long-term facilities but is increasingly emerging as an important infection in the general population.

123

pediculosis

invasion into the skin and hair by lice

124

psoriasis

chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales

125

rosacea

chronic disorder of the skin that produces erythema, papules, pustules, and broken blood vessels, usually occurring on the central area of the face in people older than 30 years (also called acne rosacea)

126

scabies

skin infection caused by the itch mite, characterized by papule eruptions that are caused by the female burrowing into the outer layer of the skin and laying eggs. This condition is accompanied by sever itching.

127

scleroderma

a disease characterized by chronic hardening (induration) of the connective tissue of the skin and other body organs,

128

squamous cell carncinoma (SqCCA)

a malignant growth that develops from scalelike epithelial tissue. Unlike basal cell carcinoma, there is a significant potential for metastasis. The most frequent cause is chronic exposure to sunlight.

129

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

a chronic inflammatory disease involving the skin, joints, kidneys, and nervous system. This auto immune disease is characterized by periouds of remission and exacerbations. It also may affect other organs.

130

tinea

fungal infection of the skin. The fungi may infect keratin of the skin, hair and nails. Infectinos are classified by body regions such as tinea capitis (scalp) tinea corporis (body) and tinea pedis (foot). Tinea in general is also called ringworm and tinea pedis specifically is also called athlete's foot.

131

urticaria

an itching skin eruption composed of wheals of varying size and shape, which usually resolves in a shor period of time. While often idiopathic, urticaria is sometimes associated with infections and with allergic reactions to food, medicine or other agents. Other causes include internal diseaes, physical stimuli and genetic disorders (also called hives)

132

vitiligo

white patches on the skin caused by the destruction of melanocytes associated with autoimmune disorders

133

biopsy (bx)

view of life (the removal of living tissue from the body to be viewed under the microscope)

134

excisional biopsy

removes the entire lesion along with a margin of surrounding tissue

135

punch biopsy

removes a cylindrical portion of tissue with a specifically designed round knife.

136

shave biopsy

removes a sample of tissue with a cut parallel to the surrounding skin

137

dermatoautoplasty

surgical repair using one's own skin (skin graft) (also called autograft)

138

dermatoheteroplasty

surgical repair using skin from others (skin graft) (also called allograft)

139

dermatome

instrument used to cut skin (in thin slices for skin grafts)

140

dermatoplasty

surgical repair of the skin

141

onychectomy

excision of a nail

142

rhytidectomy

excision of wrinkles (also called facelift)

143

rhytidoplasty

surgical repair of wrinkles

144

cauterization

destruction of tissue with a hot or cold instrument, electric current, or caustic substance (also called cautery)

145

cryosurgery

destruction of tissue by using extreme cold, often by using liquid nitrogen

146

debridement

removal of contaminated or dead tissue and foreign matter from an open wound

147

dermabrasion

procedure to remove skin scars with abrasive material, such as sandpaper

148

excision

removal by cutting

149

incision

surgical cut or wound produced by a sharp instrument

150

incision and drainage (I & D)

surgical cut made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a lesion, wound or cavity

151

laser surgery

procedure using an instrument that emits a high-powered beam of light used to cut, burn, vaporize, or destroy tissue

152

Mohs surgery

technique or microscopically controlled serial excisions of skin cancers

153

suturing

to stich edges of a wound surgically

154

dermatologist

a physician who studies and treats skin (diseases)

155

dermatology (derm)

study of the skin (a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disease)

156

epidermal

pertaining to upon the skin

157

erythroderma

red skin (abnormal redness of the skin)

158

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

159

intradermal

pertaining to within the skin

160

keratogenic

originating in horny tissue

161

necrosis

abnormal condition of death (cells and tissue die because of disease)

162

percutaneous

pertaining to through the skin

163

Staphylococcus

berry-shaped (bacterium) in grapelike clusters (thse bacteria cause many skin diseases)

164

streptococcus (pl. streptococci)

berry-shaped (bacterium) in twisted chains

165

subcutaneous (subcut)

pertaining to under the skin

166

transdermal (TD)

pertaining to through the skin

167

ungual

pertaining to the nail

168

xanthoderma

yellow skin (also called jaundice)

169

alopecia

loss of hair

170

bacteria (s. bacterium)

single celled micoroorganisms that reproduce by cell division and may cause infection by invading body tissue

171

cicatrix

scar

172

cyst

a closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material

173

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

a herpe-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised

174

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

175

ecchymosis (pl. ecchymoses)

escape of blood into the skin (or mucous membrane), causing a small, flat, purple or blue discoloration, as may occur when blood is withdrawn by a needle and syringe from an arm vein

176

edema

puffy swelling of tissue from the accumulation of fluid

177

erythema

redness

178

fugus (pl. fungi)

organism that feeds by absorbing organic molecules from its surrounding and may cause infection by invading body tissue; single-celled fungi (yeast) reproduce by budding, mulicelled fungi (mold) reproduce by spore formation

179

induration

abnormal hard spot(s)

180

jaundice

condition characterized by a yellow tinge to the skin (also called xanthoderma)

181

keloid

overgrowth of scar tissue

182

leukoplakia

condition characterized by white spots or patches on mucous membrane, which may be precancerous

183

macule

flat, covered spot on the skin

184

nevus (pl. nevi)

circumscribed malformation of the skin, usually brown, black or flesh colored. A congenital nevus is present at births and is referred to as a birthmark (also called a mole)

185

nodule

a small, knotlike mass that can be felt by touch

186

pallor

small, solid skin elevation

187

papule

a pinpoint skin hemorrhage

188

petechia (pl. petechia)

a pinpoint skin hemorrhage

189

pressure ulcer (decub)

erosion of the skin caused by prolonged pressure, often occurring in bedridden patients (also called decubitus ulcer or bed sore)

190

pruritus

severe itching

191

purpura

small hemorrhages in the skin (or mucous membrane) giving a purple-red discoloration; associated with blood disorders or vascular abnormalities

192

pustule

elevation of skin containing pus

193

ulcer

erosion of the skin or mucous membrane

194

macule

flat, colored spot on the skin (freckle)

195

papule

small, solid skin elevation (skin tag, basal cell carcinoma)

196

nodule

a small, knotlike mass (lipoma, metastic carcinoma, rheumatoid nodule)

197

wheal

round, itchy elevation of the skin (urticaria or hive)

198

vesicle

small elevation of epidermis containing liquid (herpes zoster-shingles, herpes simplex, contact dermatitis)

199

pustule

elevation of the skin containing pus (impetigo, acne)

200

cyst

a closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material (acne)

201

cough

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lungs

202

hiccup

sudden catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm

203

hyperventilation

ventilation of the lungs beyond normal body needs

204

hypoventilation

ventilation of the lungs that does not fullfill the body's gas exchange needs

205

mucopurulent

containing both mucus and pus

206

mucus

slimy fluid secreted by the mucous membranes

207

nebulizer

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment

208

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired during hospitalization

209

paroxysm

periodic, sudden attack

210

patent

open, the opposite of closed or compromised, thus allowing passage of air, as in patent trachea and bronchi

211

sputum

muccous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth

212

ventilator

mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing

213

ABGs

arterial blood gases

214

AFB

acid-fast bacilli

215

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

216

CF

cystic fibrosis

217

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

218

CT

computed tomography

219

CXR

chest radiograph

220

flu

influenza

221

LLL

left lower lobe

222

LTB

Laryngotracheobronchitis

223

LUL

Left Upper Lobe

224

OSA

obstructive sleep disorder

225

PE

pulmonary embolism

226

PFM

peak flow meter

227

PFTs

pulmonary function test

228

PSG

polysomnography

229

RLL

Right Lower Lobe

230

RML

Right Middle Lobe

231

RUL

Right Upper Lobe

232

SOB

shortness of breath

233

TB

tuberculosis

234

URI

Upper respiratory infection

235

VPS

ventilation-perfussion scanning