Bonding, Structure And Properties Of Matter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bonding, Structure And Properties Of Matter Deck (23):
1

What are ions?

They are charged particles - they can be single atoms (Cl-)or groups of atoms (NO-3)

2

What groups are most likely to form ions?

Groups 1, 2, 6, and 7
- groups 1 and 2 lose electrons to form positive ions (cations)
- groups 6 and 7 gain electrons to form negative ions

3

Ionic bonding - transfer if electrons

When a metal and non-metal react together, the metal atom loses electrons to form a positively charged ion ant the non-metal atom gains these electrons to form a negatively charged ion.

4

What is the structure of Ionic compounds called?

Giant ionic lattice. The ions form a closely packed regular lattice arrangement and there are very strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions, in all directions in the lattice

5

Ionic compound similar properties

- they all have high melting and boiling points
- cannot conduct electricity when they are solid but can when they melt
- dissolve easily in water

6

Covalent bonds - sharing electrons

- when non-metal atoms bond together, they share pairs of electrons to make covalent bonds
- the positively charged nuclei of the bonded atoms are attracted to the shared pair of electrons by electrostatic forces, making the bonds very strong
- atoms only share electrons in their outer shell

7

What are simple molecular substances made up of?

Made up of molecules containing a few atoms joined together by covalent bonds

8

Properties of simple molecular substances

- held by very strong covalent bonds
- to melt or boils a s.m compound, you only need to break these feeble intermolecular forces and not the covalent bonds.
- very low melting and boiling points
- most are gases or liquids at room temp.
- don't conduct electricity

9

Polymers

- Lots of small units are linked together to form a long molecule that has repeating sections.
- joined by strong covalent bonds

10

Giant covalent structures

- all the atoms are bonded to each other by strong covalent bonds
- very high melting and boiling points
- don't conduct electricity
- main ones are diamond, graphine/graphite and fullerene

11

Diamond

- made up of carbon atoms that each form 4 covalent bonds.
- really hard
- very high melting point
- does not conduct electricity

12

Graphite

- forms 3 covalent bonds, creating sheets of carbon atoms arranged in hexagons
- aren't any c.b between the layers
- held together weakly, so they're free to move over each other making them soft and slippery
- high melting point
- each carbon atom has one electron that is delocalised and can move. This means it can conduct electricity
- graphine is one sheet of graphite

13

Metallic bonding involves delocalised electrons

- metals also consist of a giant structure
- strong forces of electrostatic attraction
- these forces hold the atoms together in a regular structure and are known as metallic bonding
- it's the delocalised electrons which produce all the properties of metals

14

Most metals are solid at room temp.

- very strong
- high melting and boiling points
- conduct electricity
- malleable (can be bent into flat sheets)

15

States of matter

Solid, liquid and gas

16

Solids

- strong forces of attraction
- particles don't move
- particles vibrate (the hotter the solid becomes, the more they vibrate)

17

Liquids

- weak force
- don't keep a definite shape (move around)
- constantly moving around. The hotter he liquid gets, the faster they move

18

Gases

- very weak force
- move constantly in random motion. The hotter the gas gets, the faster they move

19

Solid turns to a liquid

Melting

20

Liquid to gas

Boiling

21

Gas to liquid

Condensing

22

Liquid to solid

Freezing

23

Fullerene

- shaped like holo balls
- arranged in hexagons but can also contain pentagon or heptagons (rings of 5 or 7)
- huge surface area
- can form nanotubes
- conduct electricity