Bone Marrow Flashcards Preview

Histology Exam 2 > Bone Marrow > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Marrow Deck (64):
0

What are the two types of hemopoietic tissue in bone?

Bone marrow (myeloid tissue)
Lymphoid tissue

1

Detail the phases of hemopoiesis

Mesoblastic phase (2 weeks post conception, Yolk sac)
Hepato-splenic phase (2nd month, Liver and spleen)
Myeloid phase (2nd trimester and throughout life, bone marrow)
Leukocytes appear by 8th week of gestation

2

Where does hematopoeisis occur post-birth?

Red bone marrow in the medullary cavity of long bones when young. That turns to yellow marrow when older. Can be repopulated to red if need be All red bone marrow is usually in the epiphyses (head) of bone

3

What is the stroma of bone marrow?

3D network of reticular ad adventital cells and reticular fibers (type III collagen)

4

Properties of capillaries in the stroma

Sinusoidal formed by continous layer of endothelial cells reinforced by reticular cells and fibers

5

What is the parenchyma of bone marrow?

Divided into hematopoietic compartments and responsible for the synthesis of erythrocytes and leukocytes

6

What are megakaryocytes?

Largest cells in bone marrow. Makes platelets

7

Erythroblastic islets function to?

Make RBC

8

Fibroblasts function to do what in the bone marrow?

Support the endothelium of the sinus capillaries and also produce the reticular fibers

9

T or F: Endothelial cells in bone marrow can be darkly stained by a separate stain to H&E

T

10

What stage of hematopoietic development are morphological differences apparent?

Precursor cells (blasts)

11

Pluripotent stem cells are made into what two possible cells for hematopoietic asymmetric differentiation?

Lymphoid multipotential cells
Myeloid multipotential cells

12

Lymphoid multipotential cells do?

Migrate to lymphoid organs and form LCFC (lymphocyte colony forming cell)progenitor cells then lymphoblasts then B and T lymphocytes

13

What is the process of cell differentiation from pluripotent cells?

Stem cells to progenitor cells to precursor cells (blasts) to mature cells

14

Describe the morphologic and mitotic characteristics of stem cells

Not morphologically distinct, all have aspect of lymphocytes. Low mitotic activity, self renewing, scarce in bone marrow

15

Describe the morphologic and mitotic characteristics of progenitor cells

Not distinguishable, have general aspect of lymphocytes, high mitotic activity, self-renewing, common in marrow and lymphoid organs, mono- or bipotential

16

Describe the morphologic and mitotic characteristics of progenitor cells

Beginning of morphological differentiation, high mitotic activity, not self renewing, common in marrow and lymphoid organs, monopotential

17

Describe the morphologic and mitotic characteristics of mature cells

Clear morphologic differentiation, no mitotic activity, abundant in blood and hematopoietic organs

18

Myeloid multipotential cells (stem cell) can be made into what?

Erythrocyte colony forming cells (ECFC), Megakaryocyte forming cell, MGCFC/Monocyte-colony-forming cell/Granulocyte-colony-forming cell, Eosinophil colony forming cell (EoCFC), and Basophil-colong-forming cell BCFC

19

Trace production of B and T lymphocytes from progenitor cells

Pluripotent to lymphoid multipotential cells (migrate to lymphoid regions) to LCFC to Lymphoblast to B and T lymphocytes

20

Trace production of Erythrocytes

PP cells to Myeloid multipotential cell in bone marrow to ECFC to Erythroblasts to Erythrocytes

21

Trace production of megakaryocytes

PP cell to Myeloid multipotential cell in bone marrow to megakaryocyte forming cell to megakaryoblast to megakaryocyte

22

Trace formation of monocytes

PP cell to Myeloid MP cell in bone marrow to MGCFC to MCFC to promonocyte to monocyte

23

Trace the formation of neutrophilic/eosinophilic/basophilic granulocytes

PP cell to myeloid MP in bone marrow to -CFC (G,Eo,B) to Neutro/Eosino/Basophilic myelocyte to Neutro/Eosino/Basophilic granulocyte

24

Pluripotent cells in bone marrow are how abundant?

Very rare <0.1% of nucleated cells in bone marrow

25

When are growth factors most effective on hematopoetic cells during differentiation?

Between progenitor and precursor cell stage. Growing to that point and decreasing after

26

Follow Erythropoiesis stages

Proerythroblast to basophilic erythroblast to polychromatophilic erythroblast to orthochromatophilic erythroblast to reticulocyte to erythrocyte

27

Follow granulopoiesis for neutrophil

Myeloblast to premyelocyte to Early neutrophilic myelocyte to late neutrophilic myelocyte to neutrophilic metamyelocyte to band cell to mature neutrophil

28

Follow granulopoiesis for eosinophil

Myeloblast to premyelocyte to early eosinophilic myelocyte to late eosinophilic myelocyte to eosinophilic metamyelocyte to mature eosinophil

29

Follow granulopoiesis for basophil

Myeloblast to premyelocyte to early basophilic myelocyte to late basophilic myelocyte to mature basophil

30

A proerythroblast leads to how many RBC after erythropoiesis?

8 cells

31

Properties of proerythroblast

Large, loose lacey chromatin, very visible nuceoli (ribosomes), basophilic cytoplasm

32

Properties of basophilic erytroblasts

Onset of Hb synthesis, strong basophilic cytoplasm, condensed nucleus no nucleoli

33

Onset of Hb synthesis occurs at what stage?

Basophilic erythroblast

34

Properties of polychromatophilic erythroblast

Cytoplasm filled with Hb, polyribosomes begin to decrease, final stage of mitosis possible

35

What is the last stage of mitotic division possibility for RBC?

Polychromatophilic erythroblast

36

Properties of orthochromatophilic erythroblasts

Cytoplasm filled with Hb, few polyribosomes, condensed nucleus, sometimes called a normoblast (late orthochromatophilic erythroblast)

37

Properties of reticulocytes

Anucleate, most immature form released into blood

38

Length of time for RBC production?

3-5 days. Last for 120 days

39

How does precursor RBC lose nucleus?

Via pyknotic body that is eaten by macrophage

40

What is erythropoietin?

cytokine that pushes erythroblast toward RBC differentiation

41

Properties of myeloblast

Large round nucleus with finely dispersed nucleus, visible nucleoli

42

Properties of promyelocyte

Basophilic cytoplas and azurophilic granules (lysosomes)

43

Properties of Myelocyte

Coarse chromatin, neutrophilic,eosinophilic, or basophilic specific granules appear, final stage at which mitosis can occur

44

When do azurophilic granules form?

Promyelocyte phase

45

When do specific granules appear in granulopoiesis?

Myelocyte phase

46

When does mitosis stop in granulopoiesis?

Myelocyte phase

47

Properties of metamyelocyte

Indented nucleus with coarse chromatin.
N,E, or B specific granules increase in number

48

Band form properties

Band or Ribbon shaped nucleus
Most immature stage released to circulating blood

49

Stages of Monopoiesis

Monoblast to Promonocyte to Monocyte

50

Properties of monoblast

Similar to myeloblast (large round nucleus with dispersed chromatin and visible nucleoli)

51

Properties of promonocyte

Large cell, basophilic cytoplasm, slightly indented nucleus with lacy chromatin and evident nucleoli, last mitotic stage

52

Last mitotic stage of monopoiesis

Promonocyte

53

Location of lymphopoiesis

Circulating lymphocytes originate mainly in thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissue but all lymphocyte progenitors initially come from bone marrow.

54

Stages of lymphopoiesis

lymphoblast to prolymphocyte to lymphocyte

55

Properties of lymphoblast

first identifiable progenitor in bone marrow, large cell capable of dividing 2-3 times

56

Properties of prolymphocyte

Smaller than lymphoblast, more condensed chromatin, lack surface antigens (T&B), migrate to lymphoid tissue to undergo further maturation and become immunocompetent

57

Two types of leukemia

Chronic and Acute

58

Properties of chronic leukemia

Slowly progressive, proliferating cells are partly or completely differetiated e.g. myelocytes, metamyelocytes, band cells seen in chronic granulocytic leukemia

59

Properties of acute leukemia

Rapidly progressive, proliferating cells are undifferentiated precurosors e.g. myeloblasts as in acute myeloblastic leukemia

60

Stages of platelet formation

Megakaryoblast to Megakaryocyte to Platelets

61

What is thrombocytopenia?

Severe reduction in number of circulating platelets.

62

What are the two types of thrombocytopenia purpura?

Petichiea (small dark spots of clotting) and Echymoses (bruise)

63

T or F: Leukemia, metastatic cancer, and chemo drugs can lead to thrombocytopeneia

T