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Anatomy > Bones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bones Deck (114):
1

Condyle

Large, smooth, rounded articulating oval surface

2

Facet

Small, flat, shallow articulating surface

3

Head

Prominent, rounded epiphysis

4

Trochlea

Smooth grooved, pully-like articular process

5

Alveolus

Pit in maxillae or mandible (for teeth)

6

Fossa

Flattened or shallow depression

7

Sulcus

Narrow groove

8

Crest

Narrow, prominent, ridgelike projection

9

Epicondyle

Projetion adjacent to condyle

10

line

Low ridge

11

Process

Any marked bony prominence

12

Ramus

Angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure

13

Spine

Pointed, slender process

14

trochanter

massive, rough rejection found only on the femur

15

Tubercle

small round projection

16

tuberosity

large, round projection

17

canal

passageway through a bone

18

fissure

Narrow, slitlike opening through a bone

19

Foramen

Prounded passageway through a bone

20

Meatus

passageway through bone

21

Sinus

Cavity or hollow space in a bone

22

Functions of Bone

Support and protection.
Movement.
Hemopoiesis.
Storage.

23

Classifications

Long.
Short.
Flat.
Irregular.
Sesamoid.

24

Cartilage in Skeleton

Hyaline Cartilage: Chondrocytes maintaining extracellular matrix high in collagen. On the end of long bones, fetal skeleton, growth plate, and end of ribs.

Fibrocartilage: Chondrocytes maintain parallel collagen fibers which resist compression. Intervertebral, menisci, and pubic symphysis

Elastic: Chondrocytes produce ground substance of elastic fibers
Found on ear and epiglottis.

25

Epiphysis

Ends of long bones. Compact bone filled with spongy bone

26

Articular cartilage

Hyaline cartilage that covers the end of long bones

27

Diaphysis

Long region between epiphyses. AKA shaft
Lined with spongy bone

28

Medullary cavity

Holds red or yellow marrow

29

Periosteum

Dense Irregular CT with a fibrous layer and a cellular layer containing mesenchymal cells (osteoprogenitors)

30

Metaphysis

Contains epiphyseal plate or epiphyseal lines

31

Endosteum

Lining inside of long bones

32

Layers of flat bone

Periosteum, compact, spongy, compact, periosteum

33

Red Marrow

In Medullary cavity in kids, only in spongy bone in adults. Site of hemopoesis

34

Yellow marrow

Lipid rich marrow that replaces red marrow in medullary cavity.

35

Osteoprogenitor

From mesenchymal cells,
"non-commited" bone cells

36

Osteoblasts

Secrete osteoid (Bone matrix). When osteoid calcifies, cells become trapped in lacunae and become osteocytes

37

Osteoclasts

Break down bone matrix

38

Osteon

building block of compact bone

39

Central Canal

"bulls eye" of osteon. Contains blood vessels and nerves to bone

40

Concentric circles around central canal

Concentric lamellae

41

Perforating canal

connecting central canals

42

Canaliculi

Arm like extensions that share blood and nutrients with other osteocytes

43

Trabeculae

Spongy bone building blocks

44

Interstitial growth of cartilage

Growth in length.
Chondocytes undergo mitosis, each cell produces new matrix, pushing cells apart, becoming chondrocytes.

45

Appositional growth of cartilage

Growth in diameter.
On the perichondrium, cells under go mitosis, turning into chondroblasts, they secrete new matrix, pushing older layer of cartilage down and forming new layer, as cells become chondrocytes.

46

Intramembranous Ossification (which bones)

Occurs in flat bones

47

Intramembranous ossification

Starts with a membranous mold made from mesechymal tissue. Some mesenchymal cells differentiate and become osteoblasts which start secreting osteoid. Cell gets trapped in lacunae and the osteiod calcifies. When several ossification centers join up, they form woven bone. The mesenchymal layer surrounding the woven bone thickens and becomes the periosteum.Lamellar bone replaces worn bone as spongy bone at the same time as compact bone forms around it.

48

Endochondral Ossification (where?)

Long Bones

49

Endochondral ossification

Periosteal bone collar forms around diathesis. When the perichondrium is overtaken by osteous tissue. A blood vessel penetrates the bone collar and brings in osteoprogenitor cells to replace cartilage with bone. This creates the first ossification center. The cartilage calcifies and the chondrocyes leaving from for healthy bone tissue to replace calcified cartilage. 2nd ossification centers form in the epiphyses. Eventually, all of the cartilage is replaced in bone except the epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage

50

Interstitial growth

Length in bones.
Zone 1: Resting cartilage
Zone 2: proliferating cartilage undergo mitosis
Zone 3: Cells hypertrophy and break down lacunae.
Zone 4: Calcified cartilage: Minerals are deposited and calcification kills chondrocytes.
Zone 5: Ossification: new matrix of bone form

51

Appositional growth

Growth in diameter. Osteoblasts deposit bone on the periphery, and osteoclasts great down bone on the inside

52

Which two components of Blood calcium homeostasis work together to aid calcium absorption

Parathyroid hormones and Calcitriol

53

Formation of calcitrol

Either UV light converts the "precursor" to Vitamin D or there is intake of Vitamin D.
It gets converted into calcidiol in the liver and into calcitriol in kidneys.

54

Low calcium levels Negative feedback loop

Stimulus: low Calcium levels in blood
Receptor: Parathyroid glands
Control Center: parathyroid glands
Effectors: Bone (increase osteoclast activity)
Kidney (less calcium release in urine) Small intestines (More absorption of Calcium in small intestines.)

Calcitriol

55

High Calcium levels Negative feedback loop

Stimulus: high Calcium levels in blood
Receptor: thyroid glands
Control Center: thyroid glands
Effectors: Bone (increase osteoblast activity)
Kidney (more calcium release in urine) Small intestines (less absorption of Calcium in small intestines.)

Calcitonin

56

Bones that Form Orbit

Superior: frontal
Inferior: Maxilla, palatine
Medial: Lacrimal, Ethmoid
Lateral: zygomatic, sphenoid

57

Name the Sinuses

Frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, ethmoidal

58

U shaped bone without attachments

Hyoid bone

59

Primary Curves of the spine

Thoracic and sacrum

60

Secondary curves of the spine

Months: cervical from holding head up
1-5 years: lumbar from walking

61

Cervical vertebrae

Small bodies, transverse foramen, bifid spinous processes

62

Thoracic vertebrae

Larger body
Costal facet

63

Lumbar vertebrae

Large body . Short spinous process

64

C1 Vertebrae

Atlas: Superior articular facet to articulate with occipital bone. Allows nodding. No spinous process

65

C2 Vertebrae

Axis: contains adenoid process with which the atlas car rotate on.

66

Sacrum

5 fused vertebrae

67

Fibrous Joints

No joint cavity, connected by dense regular CT

68

Cartilagionous joints

no joint cavity, bone attached by cartilage

69

Synovial Joint

Has joint cavity with synovial fluid

70

Synarthrosis

No movement

71

Amphiarthrosis

slightly moveable

72

Diarthrosis

Freely moveable

73

Types of fibrous joints

gomphosis, suture, syndesmosis

74

Peg and socket joint

Fibrous, gomphosis

75

Suture

synarthrosis

76

Joint between radius and ulna

syndesmosis: amphiarthrosis by function

77

Types of cartilaginous joints

Synchondroses
Symphyses

78

name of joint between 1st rib and sternum, ribs and costal cartilage, and epiphyseal plate

Synchondroses

79

Pubic _______ and between vertebrae

Symphyses

80

Types of synovial joints

uniaxial
biaxial
multiaxial

81

uniaxial

pivot, hinge, plane

82

biaxial

saddle, condylar

83

Multiaxial

Ball and socket

84

Parts of Synovial joints

-Articular capsule: fibrous layer and synovial membrane which secrete synovial fluid into joint cavity.
Bursa: sacs of synovial fluid
Ligament: bone to bone
tendon

85

Flexion

decrease angle between bone

86

Extension

increase angle between bone

87

Hyperextension

Extend joint past 180

88

abduction

take away from body

89

adduction

bring it back to body

90

circumduction

Ronde de jambe

91

Medial rotation

turn in

92

lateral rotation

turn out

93

supination

Hold the soup

94

pronation

drop the soup

95

depression

downward movement

96

elevation

upwards movement

97

dorsiflexion

Flexing

98

plantar flexion

pointing

99

eversion

Opposite of sickle

100

inversion

Sickle

101

Protraction

anterior movement

102

Retraction

posterior movement

103

Tendon from quad to patella

quadricepfemoris tendon

104

Quadricepfemoris

Tendon from quad to patella

105

Patellar ligament

Patella to fibia

106

patella to fibia

Patellar ligament

107

Posterior cruciate ligament

Prevents hyperflexion: from anterior femur to posterior tibia

108

Prevents hyperflexion: from anterior femur to posterior tibia

Posterior cruciate ligament

109

Anterior cruciate ligament

Prevents hyperextention: fromPosterior femur to anterior tibia

110

Prevents hyperextention: fromPosterior femur to anterior tibia

Anterior cruciate ligament

111

Tibial collateral Ligament

Medial stability. Prevents hyperabduction

112

Fibular collateral ligament

lateral stability. Prevents hyperadduction

113

Meniscus

reduce compression forces

114

Functions of paranasal sinuses

Help humidify and warm air
Make skull lighter..
Resonate voice