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Flashcards in Bones Deck (39):
1

skeletal system functions

support, protection, rbc production, mineral and fat storage, movement

2

long bone parts

- diaphysis
- epiphysis
- articular cartilage
- yellow bone marrow
- red bone marrow
- periosteum
- ligaments

3

diaphysis

bone shaft, compact bone, filled w/yellow bone marrow

4

epiphysis

bone ends, spongy bone

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articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage @ bone ends

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yellow bone marrow

fat storage

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red bone marrow

rbc production, found in spongy and flat

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periosteum

living, outer covering of fibrous connective tissue

9

ligaments

fibrous connective tissue that connects bones

10

compact bone

osteons w/central canal containing blood vessels

- living bone cells (osteocytes) in lacunae chambers

11

cartilage

used in bone formation

12

spongy bone

made of plates w/spaces filled w/red bone marrow

13

chondrocytes

cartilage-forming cells

14

intramembranous ossification

bone development between fibrous connective tissue sheets

- used in flat bones

15

endochondral ossification

cartilage replaced by bone (used in most bones)

16

step 1: cartilage model

chondrocytes lay down hyaline cartilage in shape of future bones

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step 2: bone collar formation

osteoblasts secrete bone matrix, results in a compact bone collar

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step 3: primary ossification center

osteoblasts brought interiorly by blood, lays down spongy bone

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step 4: secondary ossification sites

bone centers in epiphyses formed after birth

20

step 5: epiphyseal plate

cartilage band acts as growth plate that allows bones to lengthen

21

growth hormone (GH)

stimulates general bone growth and epiphyseal plates

22

sex hormones

increases growth during adolescence

23

vitamin D

converted to a hormone to allow calcium absorption in intestine

24

role in homeostasis

calcium blood regulation through hormones

25

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

increases blood calcium by accelerating bone recycling (regulates)

26

calcitonin

decreases blood calcium

27

bone repair step 1

hematoma: blood clot formed between broken bones

28

bone repair step 2

fibrocartilaginous callus: forms between broken bones

29

bone repair step 3

bony callus - cartilaginous callus turned to bone

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bone repair step 4

remodeling: old bone replaced by new bone tissue

31

fibrous joint type

usually immovable (eg sutures between cranial bones)

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cartilaginous joint type

slightly movable (eg intervertebral disks)

33

synovial joint type

freely movable (shoulder/knee joints)

34

flexion

decrease in joint angle

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extension

increase in joint angle

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adduction

body part moves toward midline

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abduction

body part moves away from midline

38

inversion

sole of foot turns inward

39

eversion

sole of foot turns outward