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Flashcards in Bones Deck (86):
1

what is endochondral ossification

process in which an initial small hyaline cartilage version grows and turns into bone (ossifies)

2

what is the growth area of a bone

epiphyseal growth plate

3

list the order of the parts of a bone from one end to another

epiphysis
epiphyseal growth plate
metaphysis
diaphysis
metaphysis
epiphyseal growth plate
epiphysis

4

what is the inside of a bone called

medulla

5

what is the periosteum

fibrous connective tissue 'sleeve' that is vascularised and well innervated and surrounds the bone

6

list the process of a healing fracture

trauma- fracture- initial healing (callus of new bone surrounding fracture line) - callus remodelling - healed

7

what is surgical reduction

bone ends realigned

8

what is surgical fixing

bond ends held in correct allignment

9

what is the floor of the skull divided into

3 fossa
-anterior cranial
-middle cranial
-posterior cranial

10

what is the axial skeleton

bones of the skull, neck and trunk (chest, abdomen and back)

11

what is the appendicular skeleton

bones of the pectoral girdle (attaches limbs to axial skeleton), upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limb

12

what forms the prominence of the cheek

the zygomatic bone

13

what is the base of the skull

the most inferior part of the neurocranium

14

what are le fort fractures

fractures of the midface that separate it from the skull base

15

name and number the vertebrae

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (fused into sacrum), 4 coccygeal (fused into coccycx)

16

why do vertebrae get bigger as you go down and then smaller after the hips

bigger as has to bear more weight, then weight distributed to hips

17

describe the curvatures of the vertebral column

from top to bottom:
secondary
primary
secondary
primary

secondary curves inwards, primary curves outwards

18

what is the role of the articular processes on vertebra

motility with adjacent vertebra via synovial facet joints

19

what is the role of the vertebral foramen

trasmits and protects the spinal chord

20

what is the weight bearing part of the vertebrae

vertebral body

21

what is the role of the vertebral arch

protects the spinal chord

22

what makes up the vertebral arch

2 pedicle and 2 lamina

23

what is the role of the transverse processes of the vertebrae

ligament, muscle and rib articulation

24

what is the role of the spinous process

ligament and muscle attachments

25

what are intervetebral discs

concentric sheets of collagen fibres connected to the vertebral end sheets

26

where do spinal nerves emerge from

intervertebral foramen

27

what is a facet joint

between two articular processes of 2 adjacent vertebrae

28

what part of vertebral column is affected by arthritis

facet joint

29

what do all cervical vertebrae have in common

all have a foramen in each transverse process (transverse foramen)

30

what passes through the transverse foramen in vertebrae

passage of vertebral arteries

31

what is C1 called and what makes it unique

atlas

does not have a body or spinous process
has a posterior arch and an anterior arch instead

32

what is C2 called and what makes it unique

axis

has an odontoid process that projects superiorly from the body

33

what makes c7 unique

vertebrae prominens (first palpable spinous process in 70% of people

34

what are the true ribs

1-7 attach to sternum via their costal cartilage

35

what are the false ribs

8-10 attach to shared costal cartilage that attaches to the sternum

36

what are the floating ribs

11 and 12 no attachment to the sternum

37

why is the first rib less likely to be fractured that the other ribs

because it is protected by the clavicle

38

what bones make up the pectoral girdle

2 scapulae, 2 clavicles

39

what bones make up the pelvic girdle

2 hip bones and the sacrum

40

how is the upper limb divided

arm (between shoulder and elbow joints)

forearm (between elbow and wrist joint)

hand (distal to the forearm)

41

how is the lower limb divided

thigh (between hip and knee joint)

leg (between knee and ankle joint)

foot (distal to the ankle)

42

what is the long bone in the arm

humerus

43

what is the long bone in the forearm

radium and ulna

44

what are the bones in the hand

carpal bones (wrist), metacarpals (palm), phalanges (fingers)

45

what is the long bone in the thigh

femur

46

what are the long bones in the leg

tibia and fibula

47

what are the bones in the foot

tarsal bones (hindfoot/midfoot),
metatarsals (forefoot),
phalanges (forefoot and toes)

48

what type of tissue is bone

hard connective tissue

49

what are the functions of bone

support and protection,
calcium metabolism,
red blood formation,
attachment for skeletal muscles

50

where is cartilage required

where mobility is required at articulations

51

what are the three types of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial

52

what are joints a compromise of

mobility and stability

53

describe fibrous joints

generally limited mobility, quite stable

54

what are the two types of fibrous joints

syndesmoses, sutures

55

describe and give an example of syndesmoses

united bones with a fibrous sheet, fibrous membranes, partially movable

e.g. interosseous membranes (between tibia and fibula)

56

describe and give an example of sutures

between bones of the skull, highly stable

e.g. coronary suture

57

what are fontanelles

wide sutures in the neonatal skull
anterior, posterior and lateral

58

what is the role of the fontanelles

allow the growing frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones to slide over each other

make the babys head smaller for passage through the birth canal (moulding)

59

how mobile and stable are cartilaginous joints

fairly limited mobility
relatively stable

60

what are the two types of cartilagenous joints

primary and secondary cartilaginous

61

describe primary cartilagenous joints

an almost immovable joint between bones bound by a layer of hyaline cartilage

permits growth in length of bone, ossify when growth complete

62

describe secondary cartilaginous joints

bones joined closely together, strong, slightly movable, fibrocartilage

63

give an example of a primary cartilaginous joint

long bone epiphyseal growth plate

64

give an example of a secondary cartilaginous joint

intervertebral

65

give an example of 'slipped' cartilaginous joints

primary – slipped femoral epiphysis

secondary – slipped disc

66

what is the name for the head of a bone

epiphysis

67

what is the name for the neck of the right femur

metaphysis

68

what are the two parts of the intervetebral discs

outer fibrous ring 'annulus firbosus' (fibrocartiage)

inner soft centre (nucleus pulposus)

69

what do the intervertebral discs allow

movement of the spine

70

what can a slipped intervertebral disc do

compress the spinal chord

71

what are the typical features of a synovial joint

2 or more bones articulating with each other

articular surfaces covered in a hyaline 'articular' cartilage

a capsule wraps around the joint

contains a joint cavity

supported by ligaments

associated with skeletal muscles and their tendons

associated with bursae (prevent friction)

often have special features

72

what are the five subtypes of synovial joints and their range of movement

pivot (shaking head)

ball and socket (multi-axial)

plane (minimal in one place)

hinge (reasonable in one plane- elbow)

biaxial (reasonable in one plane and less in another- mid finger)

73

list the types of joins from least to most stable

synovial > cartilagenous > fibrous

74

why is the name for naturally increased flexibility

hypermobility

75

what is subluxation

reduced area of contact between articular surface areas

76

what is dislocation

complete loss of contact between articular surfaces

77

what is the temporomandibular joint

right and left

the synovial articulation between the fossa and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone (superiorly) and the condylar process of the mandible inferiorly

78

what is the special feature of the temporomandibular joint

articular disc between the superior and inferior articular cavity

79

what happens in a dislocation of the temporomandibular joint

the head of the condylar process becomes stuck anterior to the articular tubercle of the temporal bone

80

does a dislocation happen in one or both of the temporomandibular joints

can be unilateral or bilateral

81

what does the chin remaining in the midline suggest in a temporomandibular dislocation

bilateral dislocation

82

what is proprioception

joint position sense

83

where do arteries supplies the joints arise from

articular branches

84

what does periarticular mean

around the joint

85

what can damage the arteries supplying the joints

dislocations

86

what joints are most likely to be affected by osteoarthritis

ones that are weight baring (e.g. vertebral column and lower limbs)